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(Solved) on Overview Skills Approach Perspective Three-Skill Approach (Katz, 1955) Skills-Based Model (Mumford, et al, 2000) How Does the Skills Approach Work?...

In your Northouse text, complete the "Skills Inventory: Leadership Instrument,"  (powerpoint slides 6 &7 ). Follow the instructions to score your assessment and interpret your findings. You will need to capture your responses on a piece of paper and do some simple addition.

Based on your results, find 2–3 resources that you could use to improve your skill level. Look on the Internet for professional organizations, workshops, conferences, and other means that could help you develop these leadership skills.

In your discussion post, summarize your results. (You may provide as much or as little specific information as you are comfortable doing.) Then, address the following:

  • Are the findings consistent with what you thought your skills were in this area? Explain.
  • How did this inventory better help you understand your skill level?
What resources did you find that could help you improve your leadership in this area? Provide the APA citations for the resources you located.

2-3 paragraphs

Chapter 3 - Skills Approach
Northouse, 5th edition Overview Skills Approach Perspective Three-Skill Approach (Katz, 1955) Skills-Based Model (Mumford, et al, 2000) How Does the Skills Approach Work? Skills Approach Description
Perspective Leader-centered
perspective Emphasis on skills
and abilities that
can be learned
and developed Definition Leadership skills The ability to use
one’s knowledge
and competencies to
accomplish a set of
goals and objectives Three-Skill Approach
(Katz, 1955) Technical Skill Human Skill Conceptual Skill Skill Inventory
Instructions: Read each item carefully and
decide whether the item describes you as a
Indicate your response to each item by
circling one of the five numbers to the right of
each item.
Key: 1 = Not true 2 = Seldom true
3 = Occasionally true 4 = Somewhat true
5 = Very true Skill Inventory
NT ST OT ST VT 1 I enjoy getting into the details of how things work. 1 2 3 4 5 2 As a rule, adapting ideas to people’s needs is
easy for me. 1 2 3 4 5 3 I enjoy working with abstract ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 4 Technical things fascinate me. 1 2 3 4 5 5 Being able to understand others is the most
important part of my work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Seeing the big picture comes easy for me. 1 2 3 4 5 7 One of my skills is being good at making things
work. 1 2 3 4 5 8 My main concern is to have a supportive
communication climate. 1 2 3 4 5 9 I am intrigued by complex organizational
problems. 1 2 3 4 5 Skill Inventory
NT ST OT ST VT 10 Following directions and filling out forms comes easily
for me. 1 2 3 4 5 11 Understanding the social fabric of the organization is
important to me. 1 2 3 4 5 12 I would enjoy working out strategies for my
organization’s growth. 1 2 3 4 5 13 I am good at completing the things I’ve been assigned 1
to do. 2 3 4 5 14 Getting all parties to work together is a challenge I
enjoy. 1 2 3 4 5 15 Creating a mission statement is rewarding work. 1 2 3 4 5 16 I understand how to do the basic things required of
me. 1 2 3 4 5 17 I am concerned with how my decisions affect the lives
of others. 1 2 3 4 5 18 Thinking about organizational values and philosophy
appeals to me. 1 2 3 4 5 Basic Administrative Skills – Katz (1955)
Management Skills Necessary at Various
Levels of an Organization Leaders
need all three
skills – but, skill
changes based
on level of
management Technical Skill
Technical skill - having knowledge about and
being proficient in a specific type of work or
– Specialized competencies
– Analytical ability
– Use of appropriate tools and techniques Technical skills involve hands-on ability with a
product or process Most important at lower levels of management Human Skill
Human skill – having knowledge about and
being able to work with people.
– Being aware of one’s own perspective and others’
perspectives at the same time
– Assisting group members in working cooperatively to
achieve common goals
– Creating an atmosphere of trust and empowerment of
– Important at all levels of the organization Conceptual Skill
Conceptual skill - the ability to do the mental work of shaping meaning of organizational policy
or issues (what company stands for and where it’s
– Works easily with abstraction and
hypothetical notions
– Central to creating and articulating a vision and
strategic plan for an organization
– Most important at top management levels Scoring the Skill Inventory Scoring The skills inventory is designed to measure three broad types of leadership
skills: technical, human, and conceptual. Score the questionnaire by doing the following. First, sum the responses on
items 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, and 16. This is your technical skill score. Second, sum the responses on items 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17. This is your
human skill score. Third, sum the responses on items 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. This is your
conceptual skill score. Total scores: Technical skill ____ Human skill ____ Conceptual skill ____
The scores you received on the skills inventory provide information about your
leadership skills in three areas. By comparing the differences between your
scores, you can determine where you have leadership strengths and where you
have leadership weaknesses. Your scores also point toward the level of
management for which you might be most suited. Skills-Based Model Skills Model Perspective Skills-Based Model
– Competencies
– Individual Attributes
– Leadership Outcomes
– Career Experiences
– Environmental Influences Skills Model Description
(Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, & Fleishman, 2000)
Perspective Research studies (1990s)
goal: to identify the
leadership factors that
create exemplary job
performance in an
organization Emphasizes the
capabilities that make
effective leadership possible
rather than what leaders do Skills-Based
Skills-Based Model
of Leadership
Capability model Examines relationship
between a leader’s
knowledge & skills & the
leader’s performance
Suggests many people
have the potential for
leadership Skills Model
Three Components of the Skills Model Individual Attributes
General Cognitive
Ability Crystallized
Cognitive Ability Motivation • Three aspects of
• Intellectual
ability learned
- Willingness
- Information processing or acquired
over time
- Dominance
- General reasoning
- Social good
- Creative & divergent • Person’s intelligence
- Perceptual processing thinking
- Memory Personality
• Any
that helps people
cope with
situations is
probably related
to leader
performance Next Lecture
• Competencies
• Work Experiences
• VADI Survey - Optional
• Environment
• Outcomes
• Strengths and Criticisms Competency Skills
Competencies Problem Solving
• Creative ability to
solve new/unusual,
problems Social Judgment
• Capacity to
understand people
and social systems
- Perspective taking
- Social perceptiveness
- Behavioral flexibility
- Social performance Knowledge
• The accumulation
of information & the
mental structures to
organize the
information Iceberg Model of Human Competencies Eight Competencies Areas
Supported by Research Eight competency Areas Continued Hyland Software
Competencies Roche/Genentech Core
• Strategic Agility
• Decision Making
• Technical and Business Expertise
• Communication
• Managing Change
• Inspiring and Influencing
• Teamwork and Collaboration
• Achieving Results
• Feedback and Coaching
• Innovation United Nations Core
Competencies Leadership Outcomes
Outcomes Problem Solving
• Criteria = originality & quality of
solutions to problem situations – good
problem solving involves creating
solutions that are:
- Logical
- Effective
- Unique
- Go beyond given information Performance
• Degree to which a
leader has successfully
performed his/her
assigned duties Skills Model
Skills Model of Leadership Career Experiences
Assignments Mentoring Appropriate
Training Hands-on
Experience with
Novelty Experience gained during career influences leade
r’s knowledge & skills to solve complex problems Leaders learn and develop higher levels of
conceptual capacity if they progressively confront
more complex and long-term problems as they
ascend the organizational hierarchy Primary Source of Learning for Executives 20% Experience
Other 10% 70%
Lessons of Experience, Morgan W. McCall, Jr., Michael M. Lombardo, Ann M. Morrison Test Your VADI The VADI Test VADI 45-55
This is a very developmental job for you. You are likely in
a start-up, a fix-it or an international assignment. There is very little
about this job that you have ever done before. Unfortunately, the job
may also be too large a jump for you or anyone else. 35-45
This is where most developmental jobs fall. One-half or
more of the challenges are present in a big way. 21-34
You may have been in this job for three years or more, it
may be a straight-line promotion, or you changed companies “but not
basic responsibilities” some time ago. Your performance might not be as
good as it once was; you may be getting bored. 20-0
You are comfortable coasting and retired on the job or you
are plotting ways to change your situation or quit. Your resume may be
on the street. You’ve been in the job too long, it’s old hat, it’s no longer
challenging, and you probably dread going to work in the morning. Environmental Influences
Outside of Leader’s
Control Factors in a leader’s situation that lie outside of
the leader’s competencies, characteristics, and
– Outdated technology
– Subordinates’ skill levels
– Serendipity How Does the Skills
Approach Work? Focus of Skills Approach Strengths Criticisms Application Skills Approach
Focus Focus is primarily
descriptive – it
leadership from
skills perspective Provides structure
for understanding
the nature of
effective leadership Principal Research
Perspectives Katz (1955) suggests
importance of particular
leadership skills varies
depending where leaders
reside in management
hierarchy Mumford et al. (2000)
suggest leadership
outcomes are direct result of
leader’s skilled competency
in problem solving, social
judgment & knowledge Strengths First approach to conceptualize and create a
structure of the process of leadership around
skills Describing leadership in terms of skills makes
leadership available to everyone Provides an expansive view of leadership that
incorporates wide variety of components (i.e.,
problem-solving skills, social judgment skills) Provides a structure consistent with leadership
education programs Criticisms
Breadth of the skills approach appears
to extend beyond the boundaries of
leadership, making it more general, less
Weak in predictive value; does not
explain how skills lead to effective
leadership performance
Skills model includes individual
attributes that are trait-like Application
The Skills Approach provides a way to
delineate the skills of a leader
It is applicable to leaders at all levels within
the organization
The skills inventory can provide insights into
the individual’s leadership competencies
Test scores allow leaders to learn about
areas in which they may wish to seek further


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