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(Solved) APA Formatting and Style Guide Purdue OWL staf Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab What is APA Style?

-A 5-7 page case study in the course "Ecommerce and international trade"

-conduct a comparative content analysis of two video commercials from the same company prepared for different countries

-Must follow the case guidelines (provided in the attachment)

-Must use APA format (provided in the attachment)

APA Formatting and Style Guide Purdue OWL staf
Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab What is APA Style? The American Psychological Association (APA) citation
style is the most commonly used format for
manuscripts in the social sciences.
APA regulates:
• Stylistics
• In-text citations
• References Point of View &Voice Writing in first person vs writing in third person
• : “We conducted an experiment…” • : “The authors conducted an
Active voice vs. passive voice
• : “We asked participants questions.” • : “The participants have been asked
questions by the researchers.” Language Language in an APA paper should be:
• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations
• Concise: condense information when you can
• Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and
minimize figurative language Language Two types of papers:
1.Literature review paper (theoretical), based on
existing theories and findings.
2.Empirical research paper, gaining knowledge by
direct experience (observation, experimentation,
data collection..) Types of APA Papers The Literature Review:
• Summarizes scientific literature on a particular
research topic
• Includes:
• a title page,
• introduction, and
• a list of references Types of APA Papers The Research Report:
• Describes your research
• Includes:
• a title page,
• abstract,
• introduction,
• methods, results, and discussion sections,
• a list of references,
• appendices,
• tables, and
• figures Types of APA Papers If your paper fits neither category:
•Follow the general format
•Consult the instructor
•Consult the APA Publication Manual General APA Format Your essay should:
•be typed,
•have 1” margins,
•use 10-12pt. Standard font (ex. Times New
Roman), and
•be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5”x 11”) [Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two
spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp.87-88 in the APA
manual).] General APA Format Every page of your essay should:
•Include a page header (Title, all caps) in the
upper left-hand corner and
•the page number in the upper right General APA Format Your essay should
include four major
sections: References
Main Body
Title page
page Title Page Page header:
(use Insert Page
title flush left +
page number flush
(in the upper half of
the page, centered)
name (no title or
degree) + affiliation
(university, etc.) Abstract Page Page header: do
NOT include
“Running head:”
centered, at the
top of the page
Write a 150- to 250word summary of
your paper in an
accurate, concise,
and specific
manner. Main Body (Text) • Number the first text page as page number 3
• Type and center the title of the paper at the top
of the page
• Type the text double-spaced with all sections
following each other without a break
• Identify the sources you use in the paper in
parenthetical, in-text citations
• Format tables and figures Reference Page
• Center the title
(References) at the top of
the page. Do not bold it. • Double-space reference
• Flush left the first line of
the entry and indent
subsequent lines
• Order entries
alphabetically by the
surname of the first References: Basic • Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by
• EX:“Smith, J.Q.”
• Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a
title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a
dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not
capitalize the first letter of the second word in a
hyphenated compound word.
• EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the
Purdue OWL saved my essay. References: Basic • Capitalize all major words in journal titles
• Italicize titles of longer works such as books
and journals • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes
around the titles of shorter works such as
journal articles or essays in edited collections Making the Reference Li APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the
reference list, the strategy below might be useful:
1. Identify the type of source:
Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage?
2. Find a sample citation for this type of source
Check a textbook or the OWL APA Guide:
3. “Mirror” the sample
4. Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order
and that the subsequent lines are indented (Recall
References: Basics) In-text Citation: Basi In-text citations help readers locate the cited source
in the References section of the paper.
Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:
• the author’s name and the date of publication
• for quotations and close paraphrases, provide
the author’s name, date of publication, and a
page number In-Text Citation:
Quotations When quoting:
•Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
•Include the author’s name, year of publication, and page
•Keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information In-Text Citation:
Summary or Paraphras Provide the author’s last name and the year of
publication in parenthesis after a summary or a
paraphrase. In-Text Citation:
Summary or Paraphras Include the author’s name in the signal phrase,
followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. In-Text Citation:
Summary or Paraphras When including the quotation in a
summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in
parenthesis after the quotation: In-Text Citation:
Signal Words Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:
According to Xavier (2008), “….” (p. 3).
Xavier (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3).
Use such signal verbs such as:
acknowledged, contended, maintained,
responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.
Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal
phrases when they discuss past events. In-Text Citation:
Two or More Works When the parenthetical citation includes two or
more works, order them in the same way they appear in the
reference list—the author’s name, the year of publication—
separated by a semi-colon. In-Text Citation:
Works with Two Author When citing a work with two authors, use
In the signal phrase, use “and” in between the
authors’ names In parenthesis, use “&” between names In-Text Citation:
Works with 3-5 Autho When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors
in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.
(Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name
followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Harklau et al., 1993) In-Text Citation:
Works with 6+ Autho When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first
author’s name followed by “et al.”
Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….
(Smith et al., 2006) In-Text Citation:
Unknown Author When citing a work of unknown author:
•use the source’s full title in the signal phrase
•cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication
in parenthesis.
According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System”
(“Indiana,” 2008)
Articles and Chapters = “ ”
Books and Reports = italicize In-Text Citation:
Organization When citing an organization:
•mention the organization the first time you cite the source in
the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation. •If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the
abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and
then use only the abbreviation in later citations. In-Text Citation:
Same Last Name/Autho When citing authors with the same last names, use first
initials with the last names.
(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)
When citing two or more works by the same author and
published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c)
after the year of publication to order the references.
Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants… In-Text Citation:
Personal Communicatio When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the
communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal
communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. In-Text Citation:
Electronic Sources When citing an electronic document, whenever possible,
cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page
numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph
heading. Headings APA uses a system of five heading levels
APA Headings
3 Format
Centered, Boldfaced, Upper & Lowercase Headings
Left-aligned, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase Headings
Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with
period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Headings
Here is an example of the five-level heading system: Tables Label tables with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label
and title appear on separate lines above the table, flush-left and
Cite a source in a note below the table.
Table 1
users in Europe
France Regular Users
9 ml Note: The data are adapted from “The European Union
and Russia” (2007). Retrieved from Figures Label figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The
label and the title appear on the same line below the figure,
flush-left .
You might provide an additional title centered above the figure.
Cite the source below the label and the title.
Figure 1. Internet users in Europe. Adapted from The European
Union and Russia: Statistical comparison by Eurostat Statistical
Books, 2007, Retrieved from Additional Resource The Purdue OWL:
The Purdue Writing Lab @ HEAV 226
Composition textbooks
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th
APA’s website: The End
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab


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Sep 05, 2019





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