Question Details

(Solved) Country Name United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia...


Please help me finish the problem set using the data given.


Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are widely believed to be a driver of global climate change.  In this problem set you will use cross-section data to test what drives countries’ “carbon footprints,” that is, their CO2 emissions. Is it population, or is income the bigger culprit?


The data set “CO2 by country 2010sh” contains data on many countries’ CO2 emissions, in kilotons; population, in millions; and gross national income (GNI), in millions of US dollars, for the year 2010.


1.Please propose a linear regression model to estimate the effect of population on CO2 emissions, and explain what the parameters and variables in this model are. 


2.Now estimate this model in Excel, like we did in class, using ordinary least squares. Report and interpret your estimated parameters here. What is the elasticity of CO2 emissions with respect to population?


3.Propose an economic theory to justify adding the income variable to your regression, briefly describing the theory and its assumptions and showing us what your multiple regression model looks like here:


4.Now expand your Excel spreadsheet and use OLS to estimate your multiple regression model. Report and interpret your results here:


5.What is the elasticity of CO2 emissions with respect to GNI?


6.Does the inclusion of GNI in your regression model affect your estimated elasticity of CO2 emissions with respect to population? Why or why not?


7.Based on your findings, what would you conclude is the main driver of countries’ carbon footprints—population or income? Please explain.


8.Based on your regression model, do income and population explain the difference in observed CO2 emissions between China and the United States? Explain.


9.Compare the R-squared from the simple and multiple regression. What explains the difference between the two?



Country Name
United States
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany CO2(kt)
POP(millions) GNI(Millions of US$)
5433056.54
309.33 15170300.00
8236.08
28.40
15998.78
4283.06
2.86
11807.46
123475.22
37.06
160996.42
373080.58
22.03 1096901.32
66897.08
8.39
393108.52
45731.16
9.05
49435.84
2464.22
0.36
7702.50
24202.20
1.25
23340.38
56152.77
151.13
124617.10
1503.47
0.28
4321.85
476.71
0.72
1497.42
15456.41
10.16
18785.53
31125.50
3.85
17126.87
5232.81
1.97
13197.27
419754.16
195.21 2104398.02
44678.73
7.40
47167.59
1683.15
15.54
9202.85
308.03
9.23
2014.76
355.70
0.49
1591.15
4180.38
14.36
10698.07
7234.99
20.62
23358.49
499137.37
34.01 1582763.45
264.02
4.35
1981.47
469.38
11.72
10302.35
72258.24
17.15
202873.97
8286891.95
1337.71 5904605.99
7770.37
4.67
35553.17
5804.86
18.98
23972.20
20883.57
4.42
57968.36
38364.15
11.28
63388.65
7708.03
1.10
22311.52
111751.83
10.47
191444.66
46303.21
5.55
325079.06
135.68
0.07
483.70
20964.24
10.02
51355.94
32636.30
15.00
68517.07
204776.28
78.08
214525.02
6248.57
6.22
20868.00
4679.09
0.70
9630.16
513.38
5.74
2097.41
18338.67
1.33
18239.97
6494.26
87.10
29825.57
1290.78
0.86
3043.13
61843.96
5.36
251109.55
361272.84
65.02 2700865.68
2574.23
1.56
12869.57
473.04
1.68
921.90
6241.23
4.45
11416.25
745383.76
81.78 3483764.77 Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hong Kong SAR, China
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Macao SAR, China
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Moldova
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway 8998.82
86717.22
260.36
11118.34
1235.78
238.36
1701.49
2119.53
8107.74
36288.63
39999.64
70655.76
406307.27
7157.98
1170715.42
20821.23
248728.94
12427.46
62.34
567567.26
93695.52
6398.92
1873.84
7616.36
20403.19
1030.43
10872.66
2013.18
1239.45
216804.04
1074.43
623.39
2588.90
102.68
2214.87
4118.04
443674.00
102.68
4855.11
11510.71
2581.57
50608.27
2882.26
3175.62
3755.01
182077.55
31550.87
4547.08
1411.80
78910.17
57186.87 24.26
11.15
0.10
14.34
10.88
1.59
0.79
9.90
7.62
7.02
4.56
7.62
59.28
2.69
127.45
6.05
16.32
40.91
0.10
49.41
2.99
5.45
6.40
2.10
4.34
0.53
2.10
21.08
15.01
28.28
0.33
13.99
0.41
0.05
3.61
1.28
117.89
0.10
3.56
2.71
0.62
31.64
23.97
2.18
26.85
16.62
4.37
5.82
15.89
159.71
4.89 31641.07
293454.05
731.14
40126.71
4302.27
846.57
2272.06
6644.82
15110.48
233476.93
183661.91
227769.19
2121166.42
12736.32
5643192.13
26218.06
128676.48
39852.51
211.80
1095599.47
126113.71
4489.30
6713.29
24579.69
37501.05
25370.95
9207.39
8643.30
5290.12
239358.02
1822.80
9003.28
7976.17
198.24
3444.76
9835.24
1042119.87
305.08
6316.18
5640.28
4086.06
88304.87
9834.28
10766.65
16116.35
841677.04
136188.35
8699.55
5674.42
349387.81
425901.89 Papua New Guinea
3135.29
Paraguay
5075.13
Peru
57579.23
Philippines
81590.75
Poland
317254.17
Portugal
52361.09
Qatar
70531.08
Romania
78745.16
Russian Federation
1740776.24
Rwanda
594.05
Samoa
161.35
Saudi Arabia
464480.56
Senegal
7058.98
Serbia
45962.18
Seychelles
704.06
Sierra Leone
689.40
Singapore
13520.23
Slovak Republic
36094.28
Slovenia
15328.06
Solomon Islands
201.69
South Africa
460124.16
Spain
269674.85
Sri Lanka
12709.82
St. Kitts and Nevis
249.36
St. Lucia
403.37
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
209.02
Sudan
14172.96
Suriname
2383.55
Swaziland
1023.09
Sweden
52515.11
Switzerland
38756.52
Tajikistan
2860.26
Tanzania
6846.29
Thailand
295281.51
Timor-Leste
183.35
Togo
1540.14
Tonga
157.68
Trinidad and Tobago
50681.61
Tunisia
25878.02
Turkey
298002.42
Turkmenistan
53054.16
Uganda
3784.34
Ukraine
304804.71
United Arab Emirates
167596.57
United Kingdom
493504.86
Uruguay
6644.60
Uzbekistan
104443.49
Vanuatu
117.34
Venezuela, RB
201747.34
Vietnam
150229.66
West Bank and Gaza
2365.22 6.86
6.46
29.26
93.44
38.18
10.57
1.75
20.25
142.39
10.84
0.19
27.26
12.95
7.29
0.09
5.75
5.08
5.39
2.05
0.53
50.90
46.58
20.65
0.05
0.18
0.11
35.65
0.52
1.19
9.38
7.82
7.63
44.97
66.40
1.07
6.31
0.10
1.33
10.55
72.14
5.04
33.99
45.87
8.44
62.77
3.37
28.56
0.24
29.04
86.93
3.81 9262.47
18618.46
137317.44
265929.44
458863.46
230038.36
112178.62
162254.86
1477812.94
5656.02
622.45
533855.47
12799.08
38478.03
926.08
2606.60
235074.91
86930.73
47507.02
508.30
357979.72
1411515.96
48950.36
663.27
1204.73
668.95
60504.61
4330.41
3802.06
501832.93
616380.88
5563.45
22626.29
305180.57
3295.00
2761.61
373.17
19669.16
42169.55
723965.76
20254.04
15713.33
134410.29
285949.29
2434464.28
37378.59
40491.77
679.09
387497.39
111512.78
9512.20 Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe 21851.65
2427.55
9427.86 22.76
13.22
13.08 29984.28
18902.38
9263.90 Code
EN.ATM.CO2E.KT
NY.GNP.MKTP.CD
SP.POP.TOTL Indicator Name
CO2 emissions (kt)
GNI (current US$)
Population, total Data from database: World Development Indicators
Last Updated: 03/12/2015 Long definition
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident pr
Total population is based on the de facto definition of populati Source
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, U
World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
(1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and V al Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. al Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national stati cations from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Dem munity: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.

 


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