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(Solved) ASSIGNMENT FRONT SHEET <No.1> Qualification BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Computing and Systems Development Unit number and title Unit...

Procedural Programming Assignment 1: 

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Qualification BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Computing and Systems Development Unit number and title Unit 18: Procedural Programming Assignment due Assignment submitted Learner’s name Nguyễn Ngọc Chấn Assessor name Trần Phước Sinh Learner declaration:
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are fully acknowledged.
Learner signature Date Grading grid
1 P2.
1 P2.
2 Assignment title M1 M2 M3 Procedural developments and design
1 In this assignment, you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria.
Indicate the page numbers where the evidence can be found. Assessment criteria Expected evidence Task
no. LO1. Understand the principles of procedural programming 1.1 Discuss the principles,
characteristics and features
of procedural programming Introduction to computer
programming languages, low
level languages, high level
languages and their subtypes,
criteria to select a programming
language to use. Please emphasis
also on key features of procedural
programming 1.1 2 Assessor’s Feedback LO2. Be able to design procedural programming solutions The variables and data types
required. 2.1 Identify the program
units and data and file
structures required to
implement a given design Selection structures (if-else,
2.1 Iteration constructs (for, while,
External modules/functions
required (stdio.h, string.h, etc.,
scanf, printf, etc.) Use case diagram(s) for the actions
required 2.2 Design a procedural
programming solution for a
given problem Flowchart(s) for the program design 2.2 Provide pseudo code listing(s) for
this program 3 Assessment criteria Expected Evidence Feedback
(note on Merit/Distinction if applicable) Merit descriptor No. (M1)
Merit descriptor No. (M2)
Merit descriptor No. (M3) 4 1.1 Discuss the principles, characteristics and features of procedural programming
Programming language
A programming language is a computer language developer’s use to develop programs, script
development, web development, or it is a language which a software developer writes some kind of
inductions for a computer to execute or perform a specific task. There are number of programming
languages available in current programming trends in the field, every programming languages has their
own set of keywords and some special syntax in order to perform a task. Before explaining that author
prefers to give details about two types of programming languages there are, Low level programming languages: - these are call machine languages, when you using these
languages it’s difficult to understand or use it because this content symbols, ones and zeros. These
kinds of programming languages are difficult to handle or understand. But the advantages can
classify as computer can understand this languages easily because this is a computer language
therefore computer will process information quickly. Some of low level programming languages such as Assembly Language and Machine Language.
High level programming languages: - this is also known as higher-order language, these kind of
programming languages easy to understandable for humans because it’s configure in English. This
allows the developer focus on the judgment of the problem rather than interact with machine code
languages which are low level language. There are plenty of high levels programming languages
available in present such as C, C++, visual basic, java etc. However the high level languages should translate to machine languages so computer can
understand those instruction, this can be done by two ways either uses of compiler or with the use
of interpreter. By the interpreter the source code is translated to machine code language line by
line. By the compiler the entire source code is translate into machine code at ones. 5 Reasons of choice
o C is ubiquitous. Whatever the platform, C is probably available.
o C is portable. Write a piece of clean C, and it compiles with minimal modifications on other
platforms - sometimes it even works out-of-the-box.
o C has been around for a while. Back in the days when UNIX conquered the world, C (the UNIX
programming language of choice) shared in its world domination, and became the lingua
franca of the programming world. Any serious programmer can be expected to at least
make some sense of a chunk of C; the same can't be said about most other languages.
o C is still the default language for UNIX and UNIX-flavored systems. If you want a library to
succeed in open-source land, you need fairly good reasons not to use C. This is partially due to
tradition, but more because C is the only language you can safely assume to be supported on any
UNIX-like system. Writing your library in C means you can minimize dependencies.
o C is simple. It lacks the expressivity of sophisticated OOP or functional languages, but its
simplicity means it can be picked up quickly.
o C is versatile. It is suitable for embedded systems, device drivers, OS kernels, small command-line
utilities, large desktop applications, DBMS's, implementing other programming languages, and
pretty much anything else you can think of.
o C is fast. Most C implementations compile directly to machine code, and the programmer has full
power over what happens at the machine level. There is no interpreter, no JIT compiler, no VM or
runtime - just the code, a compiler, a linker, and the bare metal.
o C is 'free' (in both the beer and the speech sense). There is no single company that owns and
controls the standard, there are several implementations to choose from, there are no copyright,
patenting or trademark issues for using C, and some of the best implementations are opensource.
o Small size
o Extensive use of function calls
o Loose typing -- unlike PASCAL
o Structured language
o Low level (BitWise) programming readily available
o Pointer implementation - extensive use of pointers for memory, array, structures and functions.
o It has high-level constructs.
6 o It can handle low-level activities.
o It produces efficient programs.
o It can be compiled on a variety of computers.
o C language is well suited for structured modular programming
o C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators
o C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast
o C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other)
o C is highly flexible
o C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming)
o C supports pointer implementation - extensive use of pointers for memory, array, structures and
o C is a powerful, flexible language that provides fast program execution and imposes few
constraints on the programmer. It allows low level access to information and commands while still
retaining the portability and syntax of a high level language. These qualities make it a useful
language for both systems programming and general purpose programs.
o C's power and fast program execution come from it's ability to access low level commands, similar
to assembly language, but with high level syntax. It's flexibility comes from the many ways the
programmer has to accomplish the same tasks. C includes bitwise operators along with powerful
pointer manipulation capabilities. C imposes few constraints on the programmer. The main area
this shows up is in C's lack of type checking. This can be a powerful advantage to an experienced
programmer but a dangerous disadvantage to a novice.
o Another strong point of C is it's use of modularity. Sections of code can be stored in libraries for
re-use in future programs. This concept of modularity also helps with C's portability and execution
speed. The core C language leaves out many features included in the core of other languages.
These functions are instead stored in the C Standard Library where they can be called on when
needed.. An example of this concept would be C's lack of built in I/O capabilities. I/O functions
tend to slow down program execution and also be machine independent when running optimally.
For these reasons, they are stored in a library separately from the C language and only included
when necessary.
Key features of Procedural Programming
Pre-defined functions. 7 Examples of pre-defined function such as "System.out.println", can be used as a function that is already
within a programming language, this grants easy work for programmers. This is because it can be written
as "System.out.println" instead of having to use lines of code to get teh same outcome if they weren't
actually a thing.
Local variables.
Local variables are a variable that can only be accessed within the specific chunk/block of code that it
was written in, not through the entire script of code(Like a global variable) a local variable is declared to
override the same variable name in the larger scope.
Global variables.
A global variable is a variable that can be viewed throughout the entire program by every other
procedure taking place, it is also accessible by every other task running in the program. The majority of
times, a global variable is a static variable, whose extent is the entire runtime of the program.
Parameter passing.
Parameter passing allows variable values to be passed through to the program which will hadle it with a
Modularity is a software technique that shows that seperating the functionality into indivdual,
interchangeable modules, each which allows it to execute the specific thing it is designed to to do. These
all combine as different tasks to achieve an overall goal.
When you have procedures in programming, the program that has them in will follow the procedures
step by step, systematically. The program does exactly what it is told to do in the order that has been set
by the programmer
Programming libraries.
Programming libraries are a collection of pre-built codes , routines, sub-routines, classes and values
which can be used at any time by the program and it's users
Procedural programming paradigm. 8 Procedural programming is derived from structured programming. Procedures, also known as methods,
functions, routines or sub-routines, simply contain a series of computantional steps to be carried out.
Procedures cna be carried out during any point of the program, sometimes other procedures can call out
another procedure during it's cycle of runn 2.1 Identify the program units and data and file structures required to implement a given design
The variables and data types required.
Number variable name Value type Initial value 1 choice int 0 2 count int 0 3 char char null 4 sID char null 5 sName char null 6 sDoB char null 7 sEmail char null 8 sPhone char null 9 sAddress char null 10 sv[ ] Struct student null Selection structures (if-else, switch-case) 9 if Selection Statement
if is the primary tool of selection
structure. if is used when we want a
single or a group of statements to be
executed if the condition is true. If the
condition is false, the statement is
skipped and program continues by
executing the first statement after the
if selection structure. The flowchart
illustrates the function of if selection. 10 Switch Statement
A switch statement allows a variable
to be tested for equality against a list
of values. Each value is called a case,
and the variable being switched on is
checked for each switch case. The
flowchart illustrates the function of
switch case 11 for loop in C
A for loop is a repetition control
structure that allows you to efficiently
write a loop that needs to execute a
specific number of times. The
flowchart illustrates the function of
for loop do...while loop in C
Unlike for and while loops,
test the loop condition at the top of
the loop, the do...while loop in C
programming checks its condition at
the bottom of the loop.
A do...while loop is similar to a while
loop, except the fact that it is
guaranteed to execute at least one
time. The flowchart illustrates do
while statement. 12 External modules/functions required (stdio.h, string.h, etc., scanf, printf, etc.)
Stdio.h: The stdio.h header defines three variable types, several macros, and various functions for
performing input and output. In my case I use some functions shown below
S.N. Function Description 1 int fflush(FILE *stream) Flushes the output buffer of a stream. 2 int printf(const char *format, ...) Sends formatted output to stdout. 3 int scanf(const char *format, ...) Reads formatted input from stdin. String.h: The string.h header defines one variable type, one macro, and various functions for
manipulating arrays of characters.
The following are declared as functions and may also be defined as macros. Function prototypes must be
provided for use with an ISO C compiler.
S.N. Function Description 1 int strcmp(const char *str1, const char *str2) Compares the string pointed to, by str1 to the
string pointed to by str2. 2 int strncmp(const char *str1, const char *str2,
size_t n) Compares at most
of str1 and str2. 13 the first n bytes C library function - scanf() Function scanf(const char
*format, ...) Argument Description * This is an optional starting asterisk indicates that the
data is to be read from the stream but ignored, i.e. it is
not stored in the corresponding argument. width This specifies the maximum number of characters to be
read in the current reading operation. modifiers Specifies a size different from int (in the case of d, i and
n), unsigned int (in the case of o, u and x) or float (in the
case of e, f and g) for the data pointed by the
corresponding additional argument: h : short int (for d, i
and n), or unsigned short int (for o, u and x) l : long int
(for d, i and n), or unsigned long int (for o, u and x), or
double (for e, f and g) L : long double (for e, f and g) type A character specifying the type of data to be read and
how it is expected to be read. See next table. C library function - printf()
The C library function sends formatted output to stdout.
14 Parameters format − This is the string that contains the text to be written to stdout. It can optionally contain
embedded format tags that are replaced by the values specified in subsequent additional
arguments and formatted as requested. Format tags prototype is %[flags][width][.precision]
[length]specifier, which is explained below − Function int printf(const char *format, ...) Specifier Output c Character d or i Signed decimal integer o Signed octal s String of characters p Pointer address n Nothing printed % Character 2.2 Design a procedural programming solution for a given problem
Use Case Diagram 15 In this application, user can add – update – delete – view and search student in the system 16 17


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