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8b.

1. As a hurricane travels, the wind speed near Earth’s surface results from the combination of its counterclockwise spinning and forward motion. This causes wind speeds to be higher to the [(left)(right)] of the advancing hurricane’s eye. This is where the winds have the greatest impact on pushing and agitating ocean surface waters.

2. The temperature profiles in Figure 2 are from a depth of 200 m to near the surface. Due to the mixing of near-surface waters by wave action and wind, the isothermal (uniform temperature) conditions in the upper portions of both profiles can be assumed to extend to the ocean surface. The blue temperature profile acquired before Hurricane Bill passed near the float location indicates a surface water temperature of approximately [(26.2)(27.6)(28.4)] °C.

3. The green temperature profile acquired after Hurricane Bill passed the float location, indicates a surface water temperature of about [(26.2)(27.6)(28.4)] °C.

4. Comparison of the two temperature profiles shows that the passage of Hurricane Bill was accompanied by [(a decrease)(no change)(an increase)] in sea-surface temperature (SST).

5. Further comparison of the two temperature profiles shows that the thickness (depth) of the uppermost layer of the ocean where the temperature was isothermal [(decreased)(did not change)(increased)] with the passage of the hurricane.

6. Based on the temperature data provided, it appears that the hurricane winds [(did)(did not)] force vertical mixing of the seawater in this upper layer.

7. Examine the surface temperature pattern on the Figure 2 SST map for 24 August relative to the white curve showing the path Hurricane Bill took towards higher latitude. It shows that SST were lowered to the [(left)(right)] of the advancing hurricane’s eye.

8. This [(is)(is not)] is consistent with the location of highest wind speeds as described in Item 1 because the higher wind speeds would enhance vertical mixing of surface water with the colder water below.

9. On the website, scroll over the Science heading on the bar across the top and then click on “Hurricane Science.” On the new page, under Hurricane Science: Content Outline, click on “Interaction between a Hurricane and the Ocean”. Scroll down to the third graphic showing a 3-D cartoon with two block diagrams showing the impact of a passing hurricane on the temperature structure of the upper ocean. The generalizations delivered by the cartoon and its caption, especially in terms of impacts of hurricanes on the surface and subsurface water temperatures, [(are)(are not)] consistent with the observational Argo float temperature data on Hurricane Bill delivered in Figure 2.

10. The two block diagrams show that, under otherwise similar conditions, the location with a thinner ocean surface mixed layer will experience [(lower)(higher)] SST beneath the hurricane.

11. The two block diagrams show that the hurricane passing over a thinner surface mixed layer will produce a wake with [(lower)(higher)] SST values.

12. And, the hurricane passing over a thicker surface mixed layer will be [(less)(more)] intense due to more warm water, all other factors being equal.

13. The highest wind gust was [(79)(83)(95)] knots (95 mph).

14. This occurred [(to the left of)(at)(to the right of)] Sandy’s path as it came ashore.

15. Figure 4 shows that the highest water level heights were in the New York harbor region near Edison, NJ. The maximum heights plotted were [(6.5)(7.9)(11.5)] ft. These occurred generally near the area where wind gusts and presumably average speeds were highest

16. According to the Figure 5, the highest storm tide from Sandy occurred near the same time as the normal [(low)(high)] astronomical tide.

17. This highest surge level was about [(9)(14)(21)] ft. above the normal tide predicted tide level for that time.

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