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(Solved) PSY 180 Text: Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology 6th Edition, 2013 ISBN-13: 9780205254996 Author(s): Ronald E. Riggio Publisher:...

100 Multiple choice questions in Organization Psychology.

PSY 180
Text: Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology
6th Edition, 2013
ISBN-13: 9780205254996 Author(s): Ronald E. Riggio Publisher: Pearson 925 North Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701
Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777
10/15 Final Examination Introduction to Organizational Psychology PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. A main proposition of the human relations movement is:
d. workers are motivated solely by money.
achievement motivation is important in determining worker morale.
workers in high-level positions are unlikely to be satisfied with their jobs.
good interpersonal relationships among coworkers will lead to increased productivity. 2. World War II contributed greatly to the growth of industrial/organizational psychology through:
d. the need for state-of-the-art machinery.
the death of many soldiers leading to dramatic shrinking of the workforce.
the development of espionage devices.
an increased focus on mental illnesses produced by warfare. 3. Which of the following is NOT a major trend that is influencing the course of I/O psychology?
a. increasing diversity of the workforce
b. increase in the world’s population
c. the changing nature of work
d. expanding focus on human resources
4. Which of the following is NOT a typical reason for organizational downsizing?
a. technological advancements eliminate jobs for people
b. reductions in the number of middle-level managers
c. decreasing globalization of business
d. fewer workers are required to do more work than before
5. The major reason that organizations will need to give greater and greater attention to human
resources in the future is:
a. employees do not want to work as hard as they once did.
b. fewer people are going to college.
c. there is a dwindling supply of truly skilled workers.
d. employers are relying less on employee selection.
6. An obvious advantage of increased workforce diversity is:
a. more workers will do more work.
b. women and ethnic minorities bring distinct characteristics into the work environment.
c. greater competition and individualism among workers.
d. the opportunity for different viewpoints that lead to organizational innovation. 3 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 7. The correlational method of research:
a. examines relationships between variables as they naturally occur.
b. cannot be used in a laboratory.
c. must involve random assignment of participants to groups.
d. is less scientific than the experimental method.
8. One limitation of the correlational method is:
a. it is very difficult to use.
b. it is usually costly and time-consuming.
c. it is difficult to determine cause-and-effect relationships.
d. it can only be used in controlled, laboratory-like conditions.
9. Turning a variable into something that is measurable is called:
a. external validity.
b. relevance.
c. operationalization.
d. objectivity.
10. A company had decided to enclose a questionnaire with its next billing to ascertain its
customers’ opinions about company services. Which method of measuring variables is the
company using?
a. self-report technique
b. direct observation
c. unobtrusive observation
d. obtrusive observation
11. Which three dependent variables are most strongly theoretically linked to one another?
a. job satisfaction, productivity, absenteeism
b. job satisfaction, productivity, profits
c. job satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover
d. turnover, productivity, quality
12. Dr. Lo wants to apply the findings of her laboratory research on teamwork to a particular
work organization, a beach resort and restaurant on the island of Kauai. Dr. Lo’s biggest
problem is likely to be:
a. the external validity of her results.
b. the internal validity of her results.
c. random assignment of participants to groups.
d. choosing a method. 4 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 13. I/O psychology scientists and practitioners are required to keep data __________.
a. available to all participants.
b. numeric rather than verbal.
c. in an organized data file.
d. confidential.
14. Inferential statistics are used to:
a. create a useful “picture” of data.
b. test hypotheses.
c. determine the variability of a sample.
d. All of the above.
15. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores lies between one standard deviation
above and below the mean?
a. 5 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 68 percent
d. 95 percent
16. An advantage of examining more than one independent variable at a time is:
a. detection of main effects.
b. detection of interaction effects.
c. it is more cost-effective than examining one independent variable.
d. fewer participants are required.
17. Which of the following is an example of a negative correlation?
a. As turnover increases, absenteeism rates are unchanged.
b. Greater absenteeism leads to a drop-off in productivity.
c. The more training, the better worker performance.
d. The happy worker is a productive worker.
18. One clear advantage of the critical incidents technique of job analysis is:
a. it provides detailed information about the requirements for success in a particular job.
b. it is quick and easy to use.
c. it provides for clear comparisons among a wide range of different jobs.
d. there is little potential for bias or distortion in using the method. 5 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 19. Why has the Americans with Disabilities Act presented a new challenge to job analysts?
a. ADA requires employers to conduct formal job analyses.
b. ADA requires all companies to immediately hire disabled workers.
c. ADA requires that a disabled worker be allowed to perform any job in a company.
d. ADA requires employers to understand the essential elements of jobs.
20. Research on the gender gap in wages shows that:
a. women are paid less than half of what men are paid for comparable work.
b. the differences in pay for men and women for comparable work have almost
c. women are paid less than three-fourths of what men are paid for comparable work.
d. the supposed “gender gap” in wages was only a myth.
21. “Comparable worth” has to do with the idea that:
a. women are just as smart as men.
b. women should be paid the same amount of money as men.
c. equal work should receive equal pay.
d. men are sometimes underpaid.
22. Comparable worth opponents argue that:
a. research shows that women do not have the mental capabilities of men.
b. women must take time off to raise families.
c. compared to men, women prefer safer jobs with pleasant working conditions.
d. comparable worth can never be achieved.
23. The term “glass ceiling” refers to:
a. limitations preventing women and minorities from achieving top management
b. artificial salary “caps” placed on top-level women executives.
c. ongoing discrimination that keeps women and minorities from being hired.
d. a government plan to ensure that companies do not become administratively
“top- heavy.”
24. Which of the following is the best definition of employee screening?
a. It is the process of reviewing information about job applicants to select individuals for
b. It is the process by which organizations attract potential employees to apply for jobs.
c. It is the process by which organizations evaluate current employees and their
d. It is the process by which organizations eliminate job positions and fire workers for
work positions that become obsolete.
6 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 25. The multiple regression approach to employee selection involves:
a. combining various predictors of success in a statistical manner.
b. an ordered sequence of screening devices after each of which a decision is made.
c. designating a score on each predictor above which the candidate must score.
d. using only those criteria on which the candidate scores either very high or very low.
26. The multiple cutoff approach to employee selection involves:
a. combining various predictors of success in a statistical manner.
b. an ordered sequence of screening devices after each of which a decision is made.
c. designating a score on each predictor above which the candidate must score.
d. using only those criteria on which the candidate scores either very high or very low.
27. The federal agency that protects against discrimination in employment is called:
a. the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
b. the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection.
c. the Affirmative Action Coalition.
d. the Civil Rights Commission of 1964.
28. Which of the following is NOT a protected group?
a. African Americans
b. Native Americans
c. women
d. young workers
29. Under affirmative action:
a. any protected group member must be hired over any majority group member.
b. only employee hiring and firing are covered.
c. a protected group member is given preference over an equally or lesser qualified
majority group member.
d. white males can never be hired until all protected group applicants are hired.
30. A “smart test” is:
a. a cognitive ability test.
b. a test with a fixed time limit.
c. a test that adjusts the level of item difficulty.
d. any test administered by a computer. 7 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 31. The most effective use of screening tests involves:
a. a number of instruments used in combination.
b. hiring interviews before tests are administered.
c. personality tests.
d. administering tests in an assessment center.
32. For the most part, utility analyses of standardized employee testing programs indicate that:
a. the use of tests to assist in employee selection is usually cost-effective.
b. the only area where tests are cost-effective is with the hiring of management
c. considering legal costs connected with defending new hires, tests are too expensive to
d. tests are not nearly predictive enough to be of any real value.
33. Assessment centers attempt to measure:
a. applicants’ ability to get along with others.
b. applicants’ readiness for on-the-job training.
c. specific managerial skills and characteristics.
d. computer and technological skills.
34. The most widely used employee screening and selection device is:
a. cognitive ability and job skills tests.
b. hiring interviews.
c. assessment centers.
d. personality and managerial skills tests.
35. An objective of the hiring interview should be to:
a. help fill in gaps in the information that has already been obtained.
b. serve as a realistic job preview.
c. serve an important public relations function for the company.
d. All of the above.
36. If high levels of performance are attributed to a worker’s effort, he/she would receive:
a. a better performance appraisal than a worker whose performance is attributed to
b. a worse performance appraisal than a worker whose performance is attributed to
c. the same performance appraisal as a worker whose performance is attributed to talent.
d. performance appraisals are not influenced by worker effort. 8 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 37. The personal biases of performance appraisers:
a. never influence appraisals if standardized instruments are used.
b. are commonly based on worker sex, age, race, and physical characteristics.
c. are always less influential than other response biases.
d. are involved in the actor-observer bias.
38. In non U.S. cultures, there may be difficulties associated with using individual performance
appraisals because:
a. emphasis may be placed on group rather than individual performance in that culture.
b. they are illegal in many countries.
c. more emphasis is placed on motivation than performance outside the U.S.
d. non U.S. workers resist all forms of performance appraisal.
39. Evaluators typically form opinions about workers’ performance:
a. as they observe worker behavior on a daily basis.
b. only when they are asked to make a direct performance appraisal.
c. based on their own performance in comparison to that of the appraised worker.
d. based on their recollections of past worker performance.
40. Effective performance feedback involves:
a. descriptive rather than evaluative feedback.
b. specific rather than general feedback.
c. an agreement between the worker and the appraiser on needed changes in
d. All of the above.
41. Court cases have ruled that “valid” performance appraisals must be:
a. based on comparative methods.
b. based on a job analysis.
c. conducted only by supervisors and relevant coworkers.
d. conducted every six months.
42. Role playing teaches specific managerial skills and also helps managers to develop:
a. positive attitudes about work.
b. ways to get along with lower-level workers.
c. communication and presentation skills.
d. ways to manipulate others. 9 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 43. The basic goal of conferences is to:
a. teach practicing managers effective management techniques that have been used by
other managers.
b. teach managers to discuss work situations.
c. develop the speaking skills of managers.
d. facilitate networking among managers.
e. All of the above.
44. Which of the following is least likely to be involved in mentoring programs?
a. men as mentors
b. men as protegés
c. women as mentors
d. women as protegés
45. Observing new trainees on the job to see how often they use new skills is an example of
using what kind of evaluation criteria?
a. reaction criteria
b. learning criteria
c. behavioral criteria
d. results criteria
46. The most important evaluation of a training program’s effectiveness is typically:
a. reaction criteria.
b. learning criteria.
c. behavioral criteria.
d. results criteria.
47. The Solomon four-group design involves:
a. two trained groups measured before and after a training program.
b. two control groups measured after a training program, and two trained groups
measured before and after training.
c. a training group and a control group measured before and after training, and a training
and control group measured after training.
d. None of the above.
48. It is difficult to scientifically investigate Herzberg’s two-factor theory because:
a. motivation is difficult to define.
b. monetary incentives are not amenable to manipulation.
c. it is difficult to clearly distinguish hygienes and motivators.
d. All of the above. 10 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 49. In the job characteristics model, the degree to which a job requires the completion of an
entire job or function is referred to as:
a. skill variety.
b. task identity.
c. task variety.
d. task significance.
50. In the job characteristics model, the motivating potential score is calculated by:
a. averaging the five core job characteristics.
b. adding the five core job characteristics.
c. converting the five core job characteristics to percentiles.
d. None of the above.
51. The instrument used to measure the five core job characteristics is the:
a. Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS).
b. Job Descriptive Index (JDI).
c. Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS).
d. Job Characteristics Survey (JCS).
52. Which of the following is NOT a job enrichment strategy?
a. building a new cafeteria for employees
b. allowing customer service representatives to compose their own correspondence rather
than forcing them to use form letters
c. allowing workers to complete an entire project rather than work on its individual
d. sending production figures to every employee
53. A key element of equity theory is the worker’s perception of:
a. being liked by coworkers.
b. fair treatment.
c. autonomy and feedback.
d. All of the above.
54. If a worker were experiencing overpayment inequity, he or she may:
a. work less to balance inputs and outcomes.
b. call in sick more often.
c. change comparison others.
d. All of the above. 11 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 55. People who are distressed when they perceive they are underpaid and who feel guilty when
overpaid are called:
a. benevolents.
b. entitleds.
c. equity sensitives.
d. growth need motivated.
56. According to expectancy theory, motivation to perform depends on:
a. whether the outcome of the behavior is desirable.
b. whether the individual has the ability or energy to perform the behavior.
c. whether performance will lead to the expected outcome.
d. All of the above.
57. In comparison to other models of motivation, expectancy theory:
a. is very limited and narrow.
b. is very complicated and thorough.
c. is too simplistic.
d. has led to many established and standardized application programs.
58. The most motivated individuals in the organization are likely to be:
a. managers.
b. administrative staff.
c. new workers.
d. older workers.
59. One reason that profit sharing plans may NOT be effective is that:
a. it is difficult for employees to see how their individual performance affects the
company’s total output.
b. profit sharing always yields very small monetary amounts.
c. they have been found to decrease levels of worker output.
d. they are paid on a fixed ratio schedule.
60. In the same gingerbread factory, Gretel works from 7 A.M. to 7 P.M. Monday through
Thursday, while Hansel works from 7 A.M. to 7 P.M Tuesday through Friday. This is an
example of:
a. shift work.
b. a compressed work schedule.
c. flextime.
d. job rotation. 12 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 61. Perhaps the most common way for employers to increase workers’ job satisfaction is
a. pay-for-performance systems.
b. benefit programs.
c. profit sharing.
d. employee ownership.
62. Which benefit program has the potential of becoming one of the most popular and soughtafter benefits?
a. flexible working hours
b. employee-sponsored child care
c. retirement plans
d. career development programs
63. Organizational citizenship behavior consists of:
a. workers cooperating with each other to attain work goals.
b. organizations promoting unqualified workers.
c. organized positive competition between organizational work groups.
d. efforts by organizational members to promote the organization and its goals.
64. Which of the following is NOT a reason why organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) may
be related to organizational effectiveness?
a. Workers who help new workers speed up the orientation and socialization process.
b. OCBs lead to a positive work environment and help in worker recruitment and
c. OCB is associated with higher cooperation and less conflict between workers.
d. Workers who help each other need less managerial supervision.
e. All of the above are reasons why OCB may be related to organizational effectiveness.
65. Systematic relaxation coping strategies may NOT be effective because:
a. it is impossible for some people to relax.
b. they can only be accomplished in groups.
c. they typically require the user’s dedication and practice.
d. All of the above.
66. Improving the person-job fit involves:
a. hiring only very educated workers.
b. working in groups in order to share job tasks.
c. instituting job enrichment and job rotation programs.
d. the careful screening, selection, and placement of employees. 13 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 67. Perhaps the most stressed group of workers in any organization is:
a. new employees.
b. managers.
c. older workers.
d. lower-level support staff.
68. Communication problems at work that cause stress commonly include: a. inadequate telephone systems.
b. workers feeling uninformed about organizational processes.
c. increased decision making by workers.
d. All of the above. 69. Which of the following accurately describes research findings on alcohol and drug use in the
a. Rates of drug and alcohol use on the job are decreasing.
b. Drug and alcohol abuse is directly responsible for decreased productivity and
increased absenteeism.
c. Stress leads to alcohol and drug use, which tend to alleviate stress for most workers.
d. Few employees within large organizations actually abuse drugs and alcohol, and thus
costs for organizations are likely to be low.
e. All of the above accurately describe research on alcohol/drug use in the workplace.
70. A major reason that it is difficult to determine the effectiveness of EAPs is that:
a. drug and alcohol use are difficult to measure.
b. the quality of program evaluation of EAPs is questionable.
c. EAPs do not really work.
d. there are relatively few EAPs in current operation.
71. Centralized networks may have difficulty solving complex problems because:
a. information flows too quickly.
b. individuals in central positions are subject to information overload.
c. the status hierarchy stifles individual creativity.
d. no one is directing the flow of communication.
72. A diagram of informal communication lines among work group or organizational members is
called a(n):
a. organigram.
b. organizational chart.
c. sociogram.
d. communigram. 14 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 73. In studying informal communication networks:
a. workers are surveyed to determine which organizational members they typically
interact with.
b. workers are observed as they complete they daily activities.
c. workers keep journals or diaries to document their regular daily communication.
d. the organizational chart is used to determine regular patterns of communication.
74. The organizational grapevine provides:
a. a quick way to transmit messages.
b. opportunities for workers to meet social interaction needs.
c. a sense of unity and commitment among workers.
d. All of the above.
75. Which of the following is NOT a positive effect of the grapevine?
a. It relays information through established organizational communication patterns.
b. It meets the social communication needs of employees.
c. It can play a part in reducing absenteeism and turnover.
d. It encourages the development of organizational commitment.
76. The “snowball effect” describes:
a. the general lack of absenteeism among satisfied workers.
b. individual employees who receive a great deal of information from upper levels in an
c. workers who quit their jobs in clusters.
d. the flow of lateral and downward communication in the organization.
77. Disadvantages of group decision making include which of the following?
a. aspects of the problem are divided among several people
b. the potential for groupthink and group polarization
c. decisions are highly critiqued
d. most groups prefer not to make decisions
e. All of the above are disadvantages of group decision making.
78. “Groupthink” refers to the situation where:
a. group members arrive at a consensus without a critical analysis.
b. a democratic vote is unanimous.
c. group members independently arrive at the same decision.
d. a group leader tells the others how to think. 15 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 79. When the manufacturing group discussed the fact that their product had experienced some
failures in the past few months, they agreed that the failures were due to misuse on the
part of the customer, and that the quality manager typically overreacts to such reports. As a
result, the group decided to increase production of the product without checking for
defects. This is an example of:
a. the illusion of invulnerability.
b. the illusion of unanimity.
c. collective rationalizations.
d. mindguards.
80. Cary is a stock broker who is personally in favor of advising a client to invest about one-third
of his money in a high-risk investment. After discussing the investment with a group of his
colleagues, Cary advises the client to put more than half of his money in the high-risk
investment. This process is an example of:
a. groupthink.
b. group polarization.
c. collaboration.
d. mindguarding.
81. The Clara Dress Co. has developed a new team of six advertising professionals. This team
would likely be most effective in which of the following tasks?
a. sewing pockets on skirts and dresses
b. reorganizing the entire product line and planning a new advertising campaign
c. supervising line workers
d. The team would be equally effective in all of the above tasks.
82. Teams that have complete responsibility for whole tasks, products, or service lines are
a. self-managing work teams.
b. quality circles.
c. complete teams.
d. task-focused teams.
83. According to the leader-member exchange theory, the individual worker is __________, and
therefore, each dyadic relationship will be somewhat __________.
a. unimportant; limited
b. the situation; different
c. most important; meaningful
d. lazy; punitive 16 PSY 180 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Final Examination 84. The strategy for applying the leader-member exchange model of leadership:
a. is too c...


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