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(Solved) Answer ALL question fully and be very detailed. 1.) Which of the hypophysiotropic hormones, and the pituitary hormone it regulates, is released in

Answer ALL question fully and be very detailed. 

1.) Which of the hypophysiotropic hormones, and the pituitary hormone it regulates, is released in response to stress? ________________

In response to cold temperature? ________________

2.) In hypothyroidism resulting from panhypopituitarism a goiter does not develop. Explain why. 

3.) Why might bilateral hemianopia occur with hyperprolactinemia?

4.) Why are primary endocrine deficiencies typically more severe than secondary deficiencies? Give some examples.

5.) Why does the low calcium level produced by hypoparathyroidism decrease myocardial contractility?

6.)  Explain why hypercalcemia is common in cases of malignancy.

7.) What is a role of Vitamin D in bone metabolism?

8.) What symptoms and signs are associated with an elevated prolactin level in women and men?

What are the causes of an elevated prolactin level other than a pituitary tumor?

9.) What two medical conditions account for most cases of hypercalcemia?

What is the treatment of hypercalcemia?

10.)  It has been shown that dwarf phenotypes result from mutations in Pit-1gene. Mutation of the Pit-1 gene results in hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and deficiencies of GH, PRL and TSH secretion. What phenotypic characteristics can be identified in these cases?

What treatment can be the most beneficial?

11.) Briefly explain how can SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion) result in hyponatremia? Does ADH secretion affect oxytocin secretion or not?


1. According to the second messenger hypothesis, the second messenger is the: 
a. Receptor located on the cell membrane 
b. Hormone carrying the signal to the target organ 
c. Intracellular chemical messenger 
d. Receptor located in the cell nucleus 
e. All of the above

2. Which hormone has a receptor that is structurally similar to estrogen receptor? 
a. Insulin 
b. Epinephrine 
c. FSH 
d. Thyroid hormone

3. Which one of the following hormones does not have intracellular receptors? 
a. Estrogens 
b. Cortisol 
c. Insulin 
d. Epinephrine 
e. T3

4. Gs proteins serve as transducers in the action of: 
a. Testosterone 
b. PRL 
c. GH 
d. TSH 
e. None of the above

5. Which hormone would have an N-signal peptide as a portion of the original gene transcript? 
a. GH 
b. Cortisol 
c. Epinephrine 
d. T4 (thyroid hormone) 
e. All of the above

6. Which hormone is not biologically effective if administered orally 
a. thyroid hormone 
b. an estrogen 
c. growth hormone 
d. cortisol

7. You learn that your “new” discovered hormone activates phospholipase C. Based on this, which one of the following changes is most likely to occur following hormone administration?

a. Intracellular DAG levels will increase 
b. Cytosolic Ca concentrations will decrease 
c. Ca association with calmodulin will decrease 
d. Phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues will increase 
e. None of the above

8. Factors known to increase ACTH secretion include all of the following except: 
a. stress 
b. ADH 
c. Hyperglycemia 
d. CRH 
e. a and b

9. Which statement best describes the relationship between GH and IGF-I. 
a. there is always a direct relationship between serum concentrations of GH and IGF-I 
b. IGF-I mediates most, if not all, of the growth-promoting actions of GH 
c. GH is protein anabolic, whereas IGF-I is not 
d. GH is produced only in the pituitary, whereas IGF-I is produced only in the liver.

10. IGF-I acts to: 
a. increase blood glucose 
b. stimulate lipolysis 
c. stimulate cellular division (hyperplasia) 
d. inhibit cartilage growth 
e. all of the above

11. ADH is: 
a. produced in the posterior pituitary 
b. a neural hormone 
c. carried in the blood bound to the protein neurophysin 
d. a large protein that must be administered by injection 
e. all of the above

12. Actions of ADH include: 
a. stimulation of ACTH synthesis and secretion 
b. inhibition of renal cAMP production 
c. antagonism of the actions of oxytocin 
d. inhibition of the sensation of thirst 
e. b and c

13. A patient has an ADH-secreting pulmonary carcinoma (syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion). As a result of unregulated ADH secretion, you would expect to find:

a.    retention of water resulting in volume expansion 
b. low urinary osmolality 
c. increased renal sodium reabsorption 
d. high serum sodium concentration 
e. b and c

14. A 25-year old woman develops a nonfunctional hypothalamic tumor that results in a complete inability to produce oxytocin. The most likely pathological response to this deficiency is:

a. inability to ovulate 
b. amenorrhea 
c. hypertension 
d. inability to lactate normally 
e. inability to deliver a child vaginally

15. Secretion of PTH is increased by: 
a. an increase in serum magnesium concentration 
b. an increase in serum phosphate concentration 
c. an increase in dietary calcium 
d. a decrease in dietary calcium 
e. treatment with thiazide diuretics

16. Hyperparathyroidism results in: 
a. alkalosis 
b. hypercalcemia 
c. hyperphosphatemia 
d. hypophosphaturia 
e. hypocalcemia

17. A 50-year-old man has low serum calcium and high serum phosphate levels. His urinary cAMP levels are low. He most likely suffers from:

a. Hypoparathyroidism 
b. Hyperparathyroidism 
c. Vitamin D deficiency 
d. Cushing’s syndrome

18. Bone loss associated with renal failure occurs because: 
a. the failing kidney is no longer capable of PTH production 
b. renal phosphate clearance decreases in renal failure 
c. the failing kidney increases activation of vitamin D 
d. renal calcium clearance increases in renal failure

19. Which set of serum values would be most typical of a patient with a vitamin D deficiency? 
a. high serum phosphate, high serum calcium, and high PTH 
b. low serum phosphate, high serum calcium, and high PTH 
c. low serum phosphate, high serum calcium, and low PTH 
d. low serum phosphate, low serum calcium, and high PTH 
e. high serum phosphate, low serum calcium, and low PTH

20. Which cause-and-effect relationship is correct for a deficiency of active vitamin D (calcitriol)?

a. bone formation is increased because vitamin D blocks the action of PTH on bone resorption 
b. osteoporosis, but not osteomalacia, is associated with a calcitriol deficiency because calcitriol synergizes with PTH in its action on bone

c. hypophosphatemia occurs because of decreased intestinal phosphate absorption 
d.     hypercalcemia occurs because of decreased intestinal calcium absorption

1. Ketosis is not likely to occur in acromegaly because: 
a. GH is not lipolytic hormone 
b. GH inhibits beta oxidation 
c. GH stimulates lipoprotein lipase 
d. most individuals with acromegaly have sufficient insulin production to suppress ketosis.

2. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol: 
a. increases bone mineralization by increasing serum Ca levels 
b. decreases bone reabsorption by antagonizing the action of PTH on bone 
c. decreases serum phosphate levels by decreasing renal phosphate reabsorption 
d. decreases serum alkaline phosphatase levels by decreasing bone turnover


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, and can produce peptic ulcers. What function is normally ascribed to endogenous prostaglandins in the gut? __________________

Why is that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition can lead to the development of gastric ulcers? _________________________

Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of parietal cells. How does the loss of these cells lead to ECL (enterochromafin-like) cells hyperplasia? ________________________

Describe the likely steps in this pathophysiological process. ____________________


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