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(Solved) ESM 120 Student's Name: Question 1 Problem Set 4 Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box Winter 2017 Discussion Section: Background: Organic...


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ESM 120 Student’s Name:
Question 1 Problem Set 4
Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box Winter 2017 Discussion Section: Background: Organic carbon (OC) accumulation in soils provides an important reservoir of plant
nutrients and contributes significantly to the retention of inorganic nutrient elements via carbon
exchange reactions. The storage of C in soils depends on the balance between organic matter
accumulated by surface littering (e.g. leaves or needles) or by the in situ incorporation (e.g. by annual
root death) and the loss of C, primarily as CO2 or CH4 (methane), via microbial decomposition. This
input/output is influenced by climatic conditions that affect plant and microbial growth rates. Directions: For the following three soils, use data in table one to calculate the mass of OC stored in each
soil. (Hint: calculate the mass of OC in each soil horizon and sum those over the depth of the soil. Watch
your units of mass and volume!) Show your work in the space below. Report the results as kg OC m-2 in
table 2. Fill in the remainder of table 2 using the climatic and soil water balances provided for each soil.
TABLE 1 : SOIL DATA ESM 120 Problem Set 4
Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box Winter 2017 ESM 120 Problem Set 4
Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box TABLE 2
kg OC m-2 Koppen (for example, Csa)
Biome Location: hemisphere
Location: Lattitude Briefly explain and contrast
the distribution of OC in the
soil profiles in relation to
the vegetation and major
ecosystem processes. Soil A Soil B Winter 2017 Soil C ESM 120 Problem Set 4
Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box Question Two Winter 2017 Background: Energy balance and water balance on landscapes and in soils play an important role in
determining the types of vegetation that occur, the amount of energy and water available for soil
formation, and the amount of water available for aquifer recharge and stream runoff. Energy dissipation
by evapotranspiration (evaporation from soil plus transpiration by plants) affects the amount of water
that can be stored in soils. A water balances is dependent not only on the magnitude of precipitation (P)
and evapotranspiration (ETp) but on the timing, or seasonality of precipitation and solar radiation. The
water balance used here is sometimes called a “bucket model”. The soil is the bucket that can hold a
maximum amount of water (water holding capacity, WHC). The bucket can be filled when P exceeds ETp,
or emptied when ETp exceeds P. Storage can never be less than zero because the bucket is empty. Also,
once the bucket is full, an excess of P over ETp produces a surplus (the bucket begins to empty out the
BOTTOM, run off is not considered in this type of bucket model), that can contribute to leaching of soils,
recharge of groundwater aquifers, and streamflow. Note that ETp refers to potential evapotranspiration,
not actual evapotranspiration. Refer to chapter 9 in the text for more discussion of water balance.
Directions, Part 1: Calculate the water balances below for each site.
Site 1
ETp
P P-ETp Water Holding Capacity 15
J 16
0 F M A M 0 1 2 6 13 9 5 J J A 9 6 2 1 1 J J 8 S O N 4 3 2 1 3 A S 1 6 D 9 14 O N D 1 1 1 Total 1 Storage Surplus
Site 2
ETp
P P-ETp Water Holding Capacity 10
J 0
1 F M A M 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 5 13 11 3 M J J A S 3 4 3 1 0 0 Total Storage Surplus
Site 3
ETp
P P-ETp Storage Surplus Water Holding Capacity 15
J 13
15 F 13
15 M 13
17 A 12
22 12
12 11
1 10
1 11
1 12
4 O 13
15 N 13
22 D 13
17 Total ESM 120
Part Two: Problem Set 4
Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box Winter 2017 1. Graph the water balance for each site 3 (plot evapotranspiration and precipitation vs. months of
the year). Attach graphs.
2. Based on the water holding capacity (WHC in cm) of the soil in site 3, show areas of Recharge (R),
Utilization (U), Deficit (D), and Surplus (S), on each graph. Note that surplus and deficit do not
accumulate from one month, but storge does, until the soil water holding capacity is exceeded. ESM 120 Problem Set 4
Due March 7, 2017 @ 4.30 pm in ESM 120 Box Winter 2017

 


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