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(Solved) UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGM j fACKS The person charging this material is rereturn to the library from which it was withdrawn...

(A, 115) 41. The reason why the wealth, power, and sophistication generated within the American web never reached the same level as that within the Afro-Eurasian web is because _______________ in the Americas as compared with the Afro-Eurasian world.

A. the domesticable animals needed for plowing and pastoral lifestyles were not as abundant or strong

B. the domesticable animals needed for transportation were not available (Include this option)

C. the range of environments ran primarily north-south instead of east-west and thus were more extreme, inhibiting easy adaptation for people, animals, and crops (Include this option)

D.   all of the above.

E.    only two and three above.

– Reading 12.1 –

Edward E. Curtis IV, “Ch 1: Across the Black Atlantic: The First Muslims in North America,” in Muslims in America: A Short History (Oxford University Press, 2009), 1-24.

Ch 1: Across the Black Atlantic: The First Muslims in North America

(12.1) 1. The Muslim black African Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, renamed Job Ben Solomon, ____________. (Mark all that apply)

__ was enslaved in 1730 or 1731 near the Gambia River in Bundu, in the eastern part of what is now the West African nation of Senegal.

__ wrote a letter in Arabic to his father hoping that his father might ransom him.

__ was from the Fulbe or Fulani ethnic group and spoke Fula in daily life, but could also read and write Arabic.

__ had memorized the Qur’an and studied numerous religious texts and traditions in Arabic as a child.

__ met James Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia and a member of the British parliament who came into possession of Job’s letter and asked scholars at Oxford University to translate it into English.

__ traveled to England in 1733 with Oglethorpe’s assistance, accompanied by Rev. Thomas Bluett who was appointed as his biographer.

(12.1) 2. Job Ben Solomon, like most Muslims, agreed with his Christian sponsors that Jesus _____________.

__ was born of the Virgin Mary.

__ performed miracles.

__ would come again at the end of the world.

__ all of the above.                  __ only two and three above.

(12.1) 3. According to his Protestant biographer, Rev. Thomas Bluett, Job Ben Solomon was especially critical of Roman Catholic ‘idolatry’, which he had observed in one West African town. T or F

(12.1) 4. The Royal African Company eventually bought Job’s bond and set him free because it hoped that Job might _______________.

__ strengthen the cause of Islam in America, especially among the black African slave populations.

__ become a leader in the anti-slavery movement on both sides of the Atlantic.

__ further its trading relationships in West Africa.

__ all of the above.                  __ only two and three above.

(12.1) 5. After 1734, Job Ben Solomon _______________. (Mark all that apply)

__ returned to his native Africa at Fort James along the Gambia River.

__ accompanied Royal African Company official Francis Moore on a fact-finding mission along the Gambia River.

__ corresponded with his family, learning that his father had died while he was away and that Bundu had been ravaged by a dreadful war.

__ set out with an English colleague for home in 1735, found all his children to be healthy.

__ continued to write to his associates in England, possibly, according to one report, living in his native land until his death in 1773.

(12.1) 6. Job Ben Solomon’s Arabic letters and the various English-language articles written about him ______________.

__ are remarkable documents from the colonial period of North American history.

__ are important sources for the study of black African Muslims in the Americas. (Include this option)

__ disprove the notion that Muslims are only recent, foreign additions to North America.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.1) 7. Some Muslims, or possibly Muslims who had converted to Christianity (during the Spanish Inquisition), may have been aboard Columbus’s first expedition in 1492. T or F

(12.1) 8. The legendary African explorer Estevanico from the 1530s _____________.

__ is said to have explored Arizona and New Mexico in search of gold and treasure.

__ was a Portuguese slave also called ‘the Moor’, indicating that he was a Muslim from North Africa.

__ symbolically represents the presence of Muslims among explorers and settlers in the Americas who came from the Iberian peninsula.

__ all of the above.                  __ only two and three above.

(12.1) 9. Evidence which establishes that Muslims from almost all Islamic regions of West Africa were present throughout the Americas during the colonial period includes the fact that ___________.

__ there were Muslims aboard Columbus’ ships. (Do not include this option)

__ by the late 1500s, common Muslim-sounding names such as Hassan, Osman, Amar, Ali, and Ramadan appeared in Spanish language colonial documents.

__ in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries various documents by and about American Muslims were published in English and other languages, such as Job Ben Solomon’s biography.

__ all of the above.                  __ only two and three above.

(12.1) 10. Around the time Job Ben Solomon came to North America in the 1730s, Islam was also spreading in ________________ buoyed by networks of Muslim scholars, political and military leaders, and mystics.

__ Senegal

__ Gambia

__ Guinea

__ all of the above.                  __ only two and three above.

(12.1) 11. Abd al-Rahman Ibrahima ___________. (Mark all that apply)

__ was a Muslim noble and military leader from Futa Jalon, a mountainous region located in what is now Guinea.

__ was, like Job Ben Solomon, Fulbe, or Fulani, the ethnic group so important to the spread of Islam in West Africa.

__ benefited from an extensive Islamic education in Timbuktu and Jenne, learned to speak several West African languages, and read and wrote Arabic.

__ married Isabella, an African American Baptist woman, in the 1790s, having several children together.

__ was recognized in 1807 by John Coates Cox, a white man who had stayed in Timbo and actually knew Abd al-Rahman’s father.

__ penned a letter in Arabic in 1826 requesting his freedom which was passed along from a U.S. senator to the U.S. consul in Morocco, and finally to Secretary of State Henry Clay.

(12.1) 12. As Abd al-Rahman Ibrahima traveled along the eastern seaboard of the United States in 1828, he met or was feted by ______________. (Mark all that apply)

__ Francis Scott Key, author of ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’.

__ Charles and Arthur Tappan, wealthy Christian reformers who later funded the movement to abolish slavery.

__ Edward Everett, a Massachusetts representative in the U.S. Congress.

__ Thomas Gallaudet, the founder of America’s first important school for the deaf.

__ prominent African American civic groups such as the Black Masons of Boston.

(12.1) 13. Temporary strategies employed by Abd al-Rahman to achieve a larger and more personal objective of freeing his family included ________________. (Mark all that apply)

__ promising to further their economic interests when speaking with merchants.

__ endorsing the plans of the American Colonization Society to send African Americans ‘back to Africa’.

__ pledging to spread Christianity in West Africa when meeting with missionaries.

__ playing the ‘Arab prince’ when necessary, donning a Moorish costume and using an ‘oriental’ identity to his own advantage knowing that many whites would see him not as a black African but as a member of the Moorish ‘race’, a tragic Muslim prince who had been the ‘unfortunate’ victim of fate.

__ offering bribes to U.S. government and other officials in order to secure their support.

(12.1) 14. After returning to Africa with his wife in 1829, Abd al-Rahman was able to enjoy life in his homeland for many long years. T or F

(12.1) 15. Generation and after generation of Abd al-Rahman’s descendants —hundreds, if not thousands of Americans — came to ____________.

__ trace their lineage to this important, if under-explored figure of U.S. history.

__ carry on the Muslim faith tradition within the United States down to the present.

__ both of the above.

(12.1) 16. White interests in in African American (Muslim) slaves included ___________. (Mark all that apply)

__ certain individuals desiring to help them gain freedom in order to repay kindnesses received when traveling in their African homelands. (Include this option)

__ some merchants and venture capitalists anxious to know more about the lands from which they came in order to better exploit the natural and human resources of those regions.

__ American slaveholders wanting to understand the ethnic identities of slaves so that they might better use and control them.

__ Christian missionaries using the stories of Muslims to raise funds for their efforts to win souls for Christ rather than Allah and to show that Africans were capable of benefiting from schooling and other institutions of “civilization.”

__ abolitionists seizing upon the image of the noble African to show the inherent humanity and intelligence of slaves.

(12.1) 17. After 1831, when Nat Turner’s relatively successful slave revolt in Virginia crystallized the fear among whites that they were sitting on a powder keg of slave dissent, constitutional rights of _____________ were severely curtailed for all southerners, especially African Americans.

__ free expression

__ freedom of religion

__ freedom of assembly

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.1) 18. Historians have emphasized the period of antebellum southern history as ______________.

__ one in which slaves subtly negotiated the terms of their enslavement.

__ akin to a state of war in which slaveholders, and those aligned with them, employed any degree of violence and repression to maintain their privileged position in U.S. society.

__ both of the above.

(12.1) 19. In order to improve his life and gain his freedom, the black African Muslim slave Omar ibn Sayyid ________________.

__ denounced his black African heritage.

__ publicly converted to Christianity.

__ write poetry praising his master.

__ all of the above.                  __ only two and three above.

(12.1) 20. Omar ibn Sayyid _________________. (Mark all that apply)

__ was an ethnic Fulbe or Fulani from West Africa born in the northern region of modern Senegal in Futa Toro.

__ studied the Qur’an, the hadith, and the Islamic religious sciences for more than two decades.

__ was taken to the southeastern United States as a slave around 1807.

__ attended a local church and remained a bachelor the rest of his days.

__ was celebrated by journalists and writers as an Arabian prince who had come to embrace Christianity.

(12.1) 21. In 1819, a local leader of the American Colonization Society (ACS), North Carolina judge John Louis Taylor ____________.

__ sent one of Omar’s earliest known letters to Francis Scott Key, a founder of the ACS, which hoped to repatriate black slaves to Africa.

__ was dismayed that Omar was Muslim and requested an Arabic Bible so that he might convince him to convert to Christianity.

__ both of the above.

(12.1) 22. Omar ibn Sayyid’s autobiography, written in 1831, is _________ Arabic-language autobiograph(y/ies) written by a North American slave.

__ the only known                  __ one of many known

(12.1) 23. In his autobiography, Omar ibn Sayyid ____________.

_ began by invoking the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate, and asking blessings on the Prophet Muhammad.

__ quoted extensively from one of the most popular chapters of the Qur’an, called Sura al-Mulk, “the chapter of Dominion,” or God’s sovereignty.

__ recounted his enslavement, his mistreatment at the hands of a terrible owner, and his utter relief at being sold to Jim Owen.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.1) 24. In the historical context in which Omar ibn Sayyid was writing his autobiography, it would not be unreasonable to interpret his use of Sura al-Mulk, ‘The Chapter of Dominion’, or God’s sovereignty, as antislavery sentiments—the concept that dominion belongs completely to God, not to other men. T or F

(12.1) 25. In recounting his life in Africa, before coming to the United States, Omar ibn Sayyid said ______________. (Mark all that apply)

__ “I walked to the mosque before day-break, washed my face and head and hands and feet.”

__ “I prayed at noon, prayed in the afternoon, prayed at sunset, prayed in the evening.”

__ “I gave alms every year.”

__ “I went on pilgrimage to Mecca.”

__ “I engaged in jihad against the unbelievers and idolaters.”

(12.1) 26. It is possible that much Muslim religious activity went on without notice because _______________.

__ so much of slave religion in North America—whether Islamic, Christian, or African traditional religion—was clandestine in nature.

__ Even when whites observed African American Muslim rituals, they often did not understand what was taking place right in front of their eyes.

__ both of the above.

(12.1) 27. The historical accounts of Omar ibn Sayyid, Job Ben Solomon, and Abd al-Rahman provide ________ evidence that Islam among the black African Muslim slaves was practiced not only individually, but in communal settings.

__ no              __ abundant

(12.1) 28. Around the Georgia and South Carolina coasts, African American Muslim slaves and free men and women of color _____________.

__ practiced Islam in the nineteenth century and perhaps into the early twentieth century as well.

__ lived in relatively isolated communities where plantations were generally large and blacks often outnumbered whites as a percentage of the area’s total population.

__ successfully fought off the British in the War of 1812.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.1) 29. Because slave owners constantly broke apart slave families by selling husbands, wives, and children to different owners in different places _____________.

__ male and female slaves often remarried, whether formally or informally.

__ slaves developed a communal consciousness that went beyond blood, as they cared for orphaned children and others who had been torn from their homes and forced to move elsewhere.

__ both of the above.

(12.1) 30. One of Bilali’s Arabic manuscripts, written in the early 1800s, ______________.

__ is now preserved at the University of Georgia.

__ contains selections from a legal treatise popular in West Africa among followers of the Maliki school of Shari‘a.

__ contains several errors, indicating that when he wrote it he may have forgotten parts of the original manuscript or left school before his education was complete.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.1) 31. Through President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Works Projects Administration (WPA) in the 1930s, ___________________.

__ field workers were employed around the country to record the oral histories of people whose ethnic traditions were being lost or transformed in modern America.

__ we can paint a rich picture of religious life among African American Muslims from the Georgia coast with the records provided.

__ both of the above.

(12.1) 32. The fact that Bilali used a long string of beads may indicate that he owned the same kind of beads popular among ______________ that had a profound impact on West African politics and society in this era.

__ the Bektashis, a Sufi military order

__ the Almoravids or ‘marabout’, a berber group

__ the Qadiriyya, a Sufi order, or pietistic group

__ the Society for Muslims Brothers, an Islamist social-political group

(12.1) 33. Some slaves who became Christians in the South claimed that Christianity and Islam were two expression of the same religious idea: “God, they say, is Allah, and Jesus Christ is Mohammed—the religion is the same, but different countries have different names. T or F

(12.1) 34. Concerning religious trends on the Georgia coast, match the following:

1. Before the Civil War (in the Antebellum Era)

2. The Reconstruction and Jim Crow eras of U.S. history

__ Muslim religious practice far more likely to be performed alongside African traditional religion rather than alongside Christianity.

__ Christianity becomes the majority religion among African Americans on the island.

(12.1) 35. Some African American Muslims on the coast practiced a form of Islam that combined Islamic rituals with elements of hoodoo or conjure, the African American folk religious practice of healing and harming that involves the use of material objects. T or F

(12.1) 36. According to James Hamilton Couper, the owner of Salih Bilali on St. Simon Island, Salih Bilali was a strict Muslim who _______________.

__ “abstains from spirituous liquors.”

__ “keeps the various fasts,” including the dawn-to-sunset fast conducted every day during the Islamic month of Ramadan.

__ was “singularly exempt from all superstition; and holds in great contempt the African belief in fetishes and evil spirits.”

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.1) 37. For African American Muslims and African American slaves more generally, Salih Bilali’s criticism of African traditional religion as magic and superstition was probably a __________ point of view.

__ minority                 __ majority

(12.1) 38. There was possibly a connection for Muslim slaves such as Rachel Grant between prayer and the slaves “what could fly” back to Africa, meaning that if your body could not be transported back home, then at least your spirit could. T or F

(12.1) 39. Many African American Muslims in the twentieth century would testify later that by practicing Islam, they were ______________.

__ publically rejecting Christianity as a socio-political statement against ideas of ‘white supremacy’, oppression, and domination.

__ reclaiming a religious and spiritual heritage that had been stolen from them when their ancestors were kidnapped in Africa.

__ demonstrating their belief in the superiority and sole validity of Islam as the one, true religion for all humankind.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

– Reading 12.2 –

George M. Fredrickson. Racism: A Short History.

Princeton University Press, 2002.

*Note: The questions for this reading are *not* always in order of the text,

they are arranged topically; follow the various page numbers indicated for the answers.


(12.2, 127) 40. Match the following specific results of the war that most shaped attitudes toward race with their consequences:

1. The Holocaust

2. Decolonization in Asia and Africa

__ Aroused wide-spread soul-searching and moral revulsion.

__ Gave geopolitical significance to many non-white peoples who came to abhor and denounce white supremacy.

(12.2, 103-104) 41. A justification for focusing on the admittedly exceptional and extreme cases of Nazi Germany, apartheid South Africa, and the Jim Crow American South is that they taught the world a lesson about the consequences of rampant and unchecked racism that eventually changed the standards for internationally acceptable conduct. T or F

(12.2, 106) 42. The extent to which the racial Other came to be identified with national defeat and humiliation was a common factor in the rise of overtly racist regimes in the American South, South Africa, and Nazi Germany. T or F

Segregation in the United States & American South

(12.2, 79) 43. In the United States racism as an ideology of inherent black inferiority emerged into the clear light of day in reaction to ______________ in the 1830s.

__ the election of black leaders to congress

__ strikes by black slave unions in the southern states

__ the rise of northern abolitionism

__ all of the above                    __ only one and two above

(12.2, 79-80) 44. Religious people in the South who were versed in scientific ethnology but wished to avoid contradicting the Genesis story simply adopted the eighteenth-century theory that blacks _____________, and then went on to contend that the deviation had become irreversible.

__ were descendants of Ham or Canaan and had therefore been cursed of God through Noah

__ had degenerated from the original race of white Adamites

(12.2, 80-81) 45. The Supreme Court of the United States declared in the Dred Scott decision of 1857 that _____________________.

__ free blacks could not be citizens of the United States, because the framers of the Constitution had assumed that they had ‘no rights which the white man was bound to respect’.

__ separate but equal segregation of people based on race was constitutional.

__ both of the above.

(12.2, 84-85) 46. Both German Jews and American blacks were impeded in their struggles for equality by the international economic downturn that began in 1873. T or F

(12.2, 115) 47. Labor shortages caused by the (World War One) war-induced decline of immigration from Europe in 1914 inspired the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural American South to the urban North that persisted into the post-war years and nationalized a social issue that had previously been regarded as a regional problem. T or F

(12.2, 115) 48. Black soldiers who had fought in segregated units in France in World War One, returned to encounter ________________.

__ renewed respect because of their contributions to the Allied victory.

__ riots, lynch mobs, and revived Ku Klux Klan.

(12.2, 115) 49. The growth of a more sympathetic attitude toward blacks in the United States in the early to mid-1900s was reflected in ______________________.

__ white patronage of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded in 1909.

__ the rise of a school of anthropologists led by a sympathetic Jewish immigrant Franz Boas that attributed group differences primarily to culture, rather than biological race, and also refrained from ranking ethnoracial groups.

__ a series of Supreme Court decisions between 1917 and 1939 which supported greater residential integration and gave blacks more access to state-financed postgraduate education.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.2, 116) 50. The shift of African American population from the South to the North through the post-World War One Great Migration gave blacks voting power, helping change white attitudes toward them. T or F

(12.2, 130) 51. Incidents which helped statesmen, policy makers, molders of public opinion, judges, and others become increasingly sensitive during the postwar years to the international liability of America’s racial practices included ________________.

__ the Soviets calling attention to America’s practice of segregation and the incidents of racial violence and terrorism that continued to occur in the southern states.

__ discrimination against African diplomats visiting Washington D.C. from newly independent states in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

__ the appeal to American practices as justification for continuing apartheid practices in South Africa.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.2, 131) 52. An important recent study has argued that the progress of racial equality in the United States has been fostered mainly by ____________.

__ the internal pressures generated by academics, politicians, demonstrations, protest movements, etc.

__ the external pressures generated by wars and international rivalries.

__ both of the above.

(12.2, 131) 53. Philip A. Klinkner and Rogers M. Smith argue in their book The Unsteady March that World War II and the Cold War provided a window of opportunity for black civil rights that is now closing. T or F

South African Apartheid

(12.2, 109-110) 54. From the end of the South African War in 1902 to the emergence of an autonomous, white-dominated Union of South Africa in 1910, the _____________ imperialists who were in control laid the foundations for the policy that quickly became known as ‘native segregation’.

__ Afrikaner                __ British                    __ French

__ German                  __ native

(12.2, 116) 55. In South Africa a substantial migration of blacks from the countryside to the cities during and after the Great War (World War One) led to ___________________. (Mark all that apply)

__ an enhancement of black power.

__ a mellowing of white attitudes.

__ ‘influx controls’ on migrants.

__ confinement to segregated townships or compounds.

__ a setting of the basic pattern for the later implemented apartheid system of labor coercion.

(12.2, 117) 56. Between 1924 and 1936 laws were passed in South Africa which ___________.

__ fixed the wages of whites at artificially high levels.

__ gave whites exclusive access skilled jobs and other kinds of desirable employment.

__ forbade intermarriage between whites and black Africans.

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.2, 124) 57. The apartheid regime in South Africa would follow the ___________ example with its Immorality Act of 1949.

__ Soviet Russian

__ German Nazi

__ American white supremacist

(12.2, 134) 58. In 1952 Prime Minister of South Africa J.G. Styrdom answered the question of what apartheid was all about by saying: “Our policy is that the (white) Europeans must stand their ground and remain Baas [master] in South Africa. …Our view is that in every sphere the Europeans must retain the right to rule the country and to keep it a white man’s country.” T or F

(12.2, 134-135) 59. Many of the Afrikaner academics and intellectuals who formulated the policies of apartheid had studied in ____________ before the war.

__ the Soviet Union

__ Germany

__ the United States

__ Japan          

__ Israel

(12.2, 135) 60. Pro-apartheid Christian theologians searched their scriptures for an expression of the divine will that would sanction South Africa’s race policies in the face of growing condemnation from much of the rest of Christendom. T or F

(12.2, 135-136) 61. Theologians of the South African Dutch Reformed Church found their scriptural warrant

__ the Curse of Ham that had served some of their slaveholding ancestors.

__ the story of the Tower of Babel, in which they identified a God who regarded attempts to unify the human race as manifestations of sinful pride, prescribing instead a strict division of humanity into separate linguistic and cultural groups.

__ both of the above.

(12.2, 132) 62. The one overtly racist regime that survived World War II and the Cold War was ____________________.

__ the Soviet.

__ the South African.

__ the Japanese.

__ the Italian.

__ the Israeli.

(12.2, 133) 63. The ace in the hole that South Africa’s leaders believed they possessed at the height of the Cold War was the role they could play as ______________.

__ a threatened and endangered minority race within a predominantly black republic.

__ a bastion of anti-communism on a continent endangered by ‘the red (Soviet) menace’.

__ both of the above.

(12.2, 133) 64. South Africa in fact received _________ aid and tacit support in relative abundance between the late ‘40s and the late ‘70s.

__ Soviet

__ Western

(12.2, 137-138) 65. After the Cold War ended, the South African white regime could no longer expect aid or even toleration from the West for its role in the defense of capitalism, and the disintegrating Soviet Union cut off aid to the black-led African National Congress (ANC), so the two sides went to the bargaining table to resolve a conflict in which neither could anticipate total victory. T or F

(12.2, 138) 66. The revulsion against official racism that inspired the international campaign to free Nelson Mandela and end South African apartheid can be traced ultimately to _________________ all mutually building off and reinforcing one another around the world during the decades immediately after the (Second World) war.

__ the antiracist fallout from the Holocaust

__ the success of decolonization

__ the success of the civil rights movements

__ all of the above.                  __ only one and two above.

(12.2, 142-143) 67. The black now in power in South Africa cannot, given the resources at their command, adequately compensate blacks there for three and a half centuries of expropriation, exploitation, and deprivation to the extent that would be required to make them truly equal to the whites. T or F

(12.2, 140) 68. Which of the following events occurred in September 2001?

__ Islamic terrorists assaulted the United States.

__ The United Nations sponsored a World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance in Durban, South Africa.

__ Both of the above.

– Reading 12.3 –

Edward E. Curtis IV, “Ch 3: 20th-Century Muslim Immigrants: From the Melting Pot to the Cold War” and “Ch 4: Religious Awakenings of the Late Twentieth Century,” in Muslims in America: A Short History (Oxford University Press, 2009), 47-71 and 72-96.

Ch 3: 20th-Century Muslim Immigrants: From the Melting Pot to the Cold War

(12.3) 69. In


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