Question Details

(Solved) Evaluating the Efficacy of Antacids Carolina Distance Learning Investigation Manual World-Class Support for Science & Math Table of Contents...


Could you complete these table please. The lab is attached if needed.IMG_8330-1.JPGIMG_8331.JPG

Evaluating the Efficacy of
Antacids
Carolina Distance Learning
Investigation Manual World-Class Support for Science & Math Table of Contents
Overview........................................................................................................................................ 3
Objectives...................................................................................................................................... 3
Time Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 3
Background ................................................................................................................................... 4
Materials......................................................................................................................................... 6
Safety ............................................................................................................................................. 7
Preparation.................................................................................................................................... 7
Activity 1: Analysis of Alka-Seltzer ............................................................................................... 8
Activity 2: Analysis of Tums .......................................................................................................... 9
Activity 3: Analysis of Milk of Magnesia ................................................................................... 11
Disposal and Clean-Up .............................................................................................................. 12
Data Tables ................................................................................................................................. 13 ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Overview
This investigation will determine the neutralization capacity of several antacids. Students
will identify the efficacy of different antacids and determine beneficial dosages. Objectives Determine the neutralization capacity of three antacids. Perform an acid/base titration using multiple reactants. Use an indicator to determine the endpoint of a reaction. Time Requirements
Preparation...................................................................................................5 minutes
Activity 1 .......................................................................................................30 minutes
Activity 2 .......................................................................................................30 minutes
Activity 3 .......................................................................................................30 minutes ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Background
Several ailments are caused by excess acid in the stomach, including acid reflux and
heartburn. Antacids are routinely prescribed to counter these conditions. An antacid is
a chemical that reacts with an acid and neutralizes it, consequently leading to a
neutral pH value. Many over-the-counter antacids are available. This investigation will
determine the efficacy of three different over-the-counter antacids. The common
active ingredients in antacids are, sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3), calcium
carbonate (CaCO3), and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). Each of these basic
chemicals reacts with stomach acids using slightly different mechanisms.
The goal of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of each of these three
antacids at the dosage prescribed by the manufacturer. For this investigation, 0.88 M
acetic acid (vinegar; CH3COOH) will be used as the acid. The use of this model acid
enables precise testing of the antacids with minimal chemical exposure. In each of the
activities, the reaction progress will be monitored using Bogen’s universal indicator. This
indicator allows for the pH change of a reaction to be monitored over a wide pH
range, and displays a clearly visible color change when the desired equivalence point
is reached (Table 1).
Table 1. Bogen’s Universal Indicator
pH Color 1-2 Red 3-4 Orange 5-6 Yellow 7 Green 8-11 Blue 11-14 Purple The equivalence point is the moles of acid are equal to the moles of base in a solution.
A solution is considered to be neutralized at the equivalence point.
The active ingredient in Alka-Seltzer is sodium hydrogen carbonate. In Activity 1, AlkaSeltzer is added to acetic acid and reacts as shown in the following chemical equation
to form sodium acetate, carbon dioxide, and water: ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company The amount Alka-Seltzer added in this activity is purposefully insufficient for full
neutralization of the acetic acid in the reaction with sodium hydrogen carbonate. This
allows calculation of the total moles of acid neutralized by the total moles of base. To
neutralize the acid, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will be added with a syringe. The volume
of sodium hydroxide required for neutralization can be quantitatively measured, and
the moles of sodium hydrogen carbonate the Alka-Seltzer can be determined at the
equivalence point. In Activity 1, the moles of acetic acid are equal to the moles of
sodium hydroxide plus the moles of sodium hydrogen carbonate at the equivalence
point.
This equation is solved by subtracting the moles of sodium hydroxide from the moles of
acetic acid in the sample, which solves the equation for the moles of sodium hydrogen
carbonate.
The procedures and calculations for Activity 2 are the same as those for Activity 1, but
Tums is substituted for Alka-Seltzer. The active ingredient in Tums is calcium carbonate,
which reacts with acetic acid as shown in the following chemical equation to produce
calcium acetate, carbon dioxide, and water: In Activity 3, milk of magnesia is tested as the antacid. The active ingredient in milk of
magnesia is magnesium hydroxide, which reacts with acetic acid as shown in the
following standard acid-base reaction:
Magnesium hydroxide is only slightly soluble in water. Most of the magnesium hydroxide
in milk of magnesia is a solid suspension. A suspension is a mixture of solid particles
suspended in a liquid solution. The solid particles of magnesium hydroxide settle out of
the undisturbed solution over time; this is why the instructions state that the bottle must
be shaken well before use. When the magnesium hydroxide suspension is mixed with
acetic acid, aqueous magnesium hydroxide reacts first with the acid. As the acid-base
reaction proceeds, the equilibrium between solid and aqueous magnesium hydroxide
shifts due to Le Chatelier’s principle, which causes solid Mg(OH)2 to go into solution. The
procedures for testing milk of magnesia in Activity 3 differ from those used in Activities 1
and 2. In Activity 3, a quantity of milk of magnesia will be weighed out, and acetic
acid will be used to titrate the solution to its equivalence point. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Materials
Included in the materials kit:
Bogen’s Universal Indicator
Alka-Seltzer®, 2 packs
Milk of Magnesia, 4 oz.
Tums®, 1 roll
1 M Sodium Hydroxide solution, 20 mL
Syringe, 5 mL
Needed from the chemical kit:
Acetic acid (vinegar)
Needed from the equipment kit:
Balance
Large plastic cup
Small medicine cup
Graduated Cylinder, 50-mL
Needed but not supplied:
Tap water, room temperature
Sheet of white paper
Camera Reorder Information: Replacement supplies for the Evaluating the Efficacy of Antacids
investigation can be ordered from Carolina Biological Supply Company, kit 580346.
Call 1-800-334-5551 to order. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Safety
Wear your safety goggles, chemical apron
and gloves at all times while conducting
this investigation.
Read all instructions for this laboratory activity before beginning. Follow the
instructions closely and observe established laboratory safety practices, including
the use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) described in the Safety
section.
Acetic acid and sodium hydroxide are corrosive materials. Use these
materials near a source of running water that can be used as a safety eye
wash or safety shower if any corrosive material comes in contact with skin
or eyes.
Bogen’s universal indicator contains denatured ethyl alcohol and is a
health hazard. This indicator is a potential skin, eye, and respiratory tract
irritant. This indicator is toxic if ingested.
Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while performing this activity. Wash your hands with
soap and water before and after performing the activity. Clean up the work area
with soap and water after completing the investigation. Keep pets and children
away from lab materials and equipment. Preparation
1. Read each activity thoroughly.
2. Clean the workspace.
3. Gather all needed materials. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Activity 1: Analysis of Alka-Seltzer
1. Place the large plastic cup on the weigh balance and tare the balance. Carefully
weigh 5 g of acetic acid into the cup. Record the exact mass of acetic acid in the
cup in Data Table 1.
2. Measure 20 mL of room-temperature tap water with the 50-mL graduated cylinder.
3. Add the 20 ml of water to the 5 g of acetic acid in the large cup. Gently swirl the
cup to mix the solution.
4. Add 56 drops of Bogen’s universal indicator to the solution. Gently swirl the cup to
mix the solution.
5. Place the cup against the sheet of white paper and take a photograph of the initial
color of the solution.
6. Weigh one tablet of Alka-Seltzer and record the mass in Data Table 1.
7. Add the weighed Alka-Seltzer tablet to the solution in the cup.
8. Wait for the Alka-Seltzer tablet to dissolve completely.
9. After the tablet dissolves completely, place the cup against the sheet of white
paper and take a photograph of the solution.
10. Transfer approximately 10 mL of 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the small medicine
cup. This solution will be used to fill the syringe.
11. Fill the 5 mL syringe with 1 M NaOH solution. Minimize the amount of air in the syringe
by pointing the tip upward, gently tapping the syringe, and slowly depressing the
plunger until the air is expelled. Be careful not to spill NaOH onto your hands or
clothes during this procedure.
12. Record the initial volume of 1M NaOH in the syringe (to the nearest 0.1 mL) in Data
Table 1.
13. Add NaOH from the syringe in 0.1 mL increments. Gently swirl the cup between
each addition. Continue adding 0.1 mL increments of 1 M NaOH until an orange
color persists for a few seconds after the addition of the NaOH.
The syringe may need to be refilled during the course of each activity. Be sure to
record the total volume of 1 M NaOH required to reach the equivalence point.
14. Add 1 M NaOH dropwise from the syringe, with constant swirling, until a single drop
of NaOH causes the solution to change to a yellow color that persists for a few
seconds after the addition. This indicates that the endpoint of the titration has been
reached, and the solution is at the equivalence point.
15. Place the cup against the sheet of white paper and take a photograph of the final
color of the solution.
16. Once the equivalence point has been reached, record the final volume of 1 M
NaOH in the syringe in Data Table 1. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company 17. Calculate the total volume of 1 M NaOH added to the solution. Enter this volume in
Data Table 1.
18. Dispose of the solution in the cup. Thoroughly rinse the plastic cup with roomtemperature tap water at least 5 times. Dry the cup completely before proceeding
to Step 19.
19. Repeat steps 118 for the second tablet of Alka-Seltzer.
20. Before proceeding to Activity 2, dispose of the solution in the large plastic cup, rinse
the cup at least 5 times with room-temperature tap water, and dry the cup
completely. Activity 2: Analysis of Tums
1. Place the large plastic cup on the weigh balance and tare the balance. Carefully
weigh 5 g of acetic acid into the cup. Record the exact mass of acetic acid in the
cup in Data Table 2.
2. Measure 20 mL of room-temperature tap water with the 50-mL graduated cylinder.
3. Add the 20 ml of water to the 5 g of acetic acid in the large cup. Gently swirl the
cup to mix the solution.
4. Add 56 drops of Bogen’s universal indicator to the solution. Gently swirl the cup to
mix the solution.
5. Place the cup against the sheet of white paper and take a photograph of the initial
color of the solution.
6. Weigh one tablet of Tums and record the mass in Data Table 2.
7. Add the weighed Tums tablet to the solution in the cup.
8. Wait for the Tums tablet to dissolve completely.
9. After the tablet dissolves completely, place the cup against the sheet of white
paper and take a photograph of the solution.
10. Transfer approximately 10 mL of 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the small medicine
cup. This solution will be used to fill the syringe.
11. Fill the 5 mL syringe with 1 M NaOH solution. Minimize the amount of air in the syringe
by pointing the tip upward, gently tapping the syringe, and slowly depressing the
plunger until the air is expelled. Be careful not to spill NaOH onto your hands or
clothes during this procedure.
12. Record the initial volume of 1M NaOH in the syringe (to the nearest 0.1 mL) in Data
Table 2. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company 13. Add NaOH from the syringe in 0.1 mL increments. Gently swirl the cup between
each addition. Continue adding 0.1 mL increments of 1 M NaOH until an orange
color persists for a few seconds after the addition of the NaOH.
The syringe may need to be refilled during the course of each activity. Be sure to
record the total volume of 1 M NaOH required to reach the equivalence point.
14. Add 1 M NaOH dropwise from the syringe, with constant swirling, until a single drop
of NaOH causes the solution to change to a yellow color that persists for a few
seconds after the addition. This indicates that the endpoint of the titration has been
reached, and the solution is at the equivalence point.
15. Place the cup against the sheet of white paper and take a photograph of the final
color of the solution.
16. Once the equivalence point has been reached, record the final volume of 1 M
NaOH in the syringe in Data Table 2.
17. Calculate the total volume of 1 M NaOH added to the solution. Enter this volume in
Data Table 1.
18. Dispose of the solution in the cup. Thoroughly rinse the plastic cup with roomtemperature tap water at least 5 times. Dry the cup completely before proceeding
to Step 19.
19. Repeat steps 118 for the second tablet of Tums.
20. Before proceeding to Activity 3, dispose of the solution in the large plastic cup, rinse
the cup at least 5 times with room-temperature tap water, and dry the cup
completely. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Activity 3: Analysis of Milk of Magnesia
1. Rinse the 5 mL syringe thoroughly with tap water. Draw water into the syringe and
expel the water at least 5 times.
2. Place the large plastic cup on the weigh balance and tare the balance. Weigh 2.5
g of milk of magnesia into the cup. Record the exact mass in Data Table 3.
3. Measure 20 mL of room-temperature tap water with the 50 mL graduated cylinder.
4. Add the 20 ml of water to the 2.5 g of milk of magnesia in the cup. Gently swirl the
cup to mix the solution.
5. Add 56 drops of Bogen’s universal indicator to the solution in the cup. Gently swirl
the cup to mix the solution.
6. Place the cup against the sheet of white paper and take a photograph of the initial
color of the solution.
7. Transfer approximately 10 mL of acetic acid to the small medicine cup. This solution
will be used to fill the syringe.
8. Fill the syringe with the acetic acid. Minimize the amount of air in the syringe using
the procedure in Activity 1, Step 11.
9. Record the initial volume of acetic acid in the 1 mL syringe (to the nearest 0.1 mL) in
Data Table 3.
10. Add acetic acid in 0.5 mL increments from the syringe to the solution in the cup.
Gently swirl the cup between each addition to mix. Continue adding 0.5 mL
increments of acetic acid until the solution changes to a green color that persists for
a few seconds.
11. Add acetic acid dropwise from the syringe, with constant swirling, until a single drop
of acetic acid causes the solution to change to a yellow color that persists for a few
seconds. At this point, the solution should be transparent. These two properties
indicate that the equivalence point has been reached.
12. Once the equivalence point has been reached, record the final volume of acetic
acid remaining in the syringe in Data Table 3.
13. Place the cup against the sheet of white paper and take a photograph of the final
color of the solution.
14. Dispose of the solution in the cup. Thoroughly rinse the plastic cup with roomtemperature tap water at least 5 times. Dry the cup completely before proceeding
to Step 15.
15. Repeat steps 214 using a second sample of milk of magnesia. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Disposal and Clean-Up
1. Dispose of all solutions down the drain with the water running. Allow the faucet to
run for several minutes to dilute the solutions.
2. Rinse and dry the lab equipment and return the materials to your equipment kit.
3. Clean and sanitize the workspace. ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Data Tables
Data Table 1: Analysis of Alka-Seltzer
Trial 1 Trial 2 Mass of acetic acid
Density of acetic acid 1.00 g/mL Concentration of acetic
acid 0.88 M Mass of Alka-Seltzer
Volume of NaOH, initial
Volume of NaOH, final
Volume of NaOH, total
Moles of acetic acid
Moles of NaOH
Moles of NaHCO3
Moles NaHCO3 / g AlkaSeltzer
Data Table 2: Analysis of Tums
Trial 1 Trial 2 Mass of acetic acid
Density of acetic acid 1.00 g/mL Concentration of acetic
acid 0.88 M Mass of Tums
Volume of NaOH, initial
Volume of NaOH, final
Volume of NaOH, total
Moles of acetic acid
Moles of NaOH
Moles of NaHCO3
Moles CaCO3 / g Tums ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company Data Table 3: Analysis of Milk of Magnesia
Trial 1 Trial 2 Mass of milk of magnesia
Density of milk of magnesia 1.14 g/mL Volume of acetic acid,
initial
Volume of acetic acid, final
Volume of acetic acid,
total
Concentration of acetic
acid
Moles of acetic acid
Moles of Mg(OH)2
Moles Mg(OH)2 / g milk of
magnesia ©2014, Carolina Biological Supply Company 0.88 M

 


Solution details:
STATUS
Answered
QUALITY
Approved
ANSWER RATING

This question was answered on: Sep 05, 2019

PRICE: $18

Solution~000200172436.zip (25.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $18

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free solution (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .
SiteLock

About this Question

STATUS

Answered

QUALITY

Approved

DATE ANSWERED

Sep 05, 2019

EXPERT

Tutor

ANSWER RATING

GET INSTANT HELP/h4>

We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.

You can also use these solutions:

  • As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
  • As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
  • For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student.

NEW ASSIGNMENT HELP?

Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround

Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.

WE GUARANTEE, THAT YOUR PAPER WILL BE WRITTEN FROM SCRATCH AND WITHIN YOUR SET DEADLINE.

Order Now