Question Details

(Solved) OBIO103 Practical Manual 1 OBIO103 Practical Manual 1 EXTERNAL ASSIGNMENT III Practical No. 5 Submit a report of 1000 words describing your...


Order Description

I will send you tip for appropriate compensation


1.Finish in time 

2.Submit a report of 1000 words describing your experiment as part of your submission

OBIO103 Practical Manual 1 OBIO103 Practical Manual 1 EXTERNAL ASSIGNMENT III Practical No. 5
Submit a report of 1000 words describing your
experiment as part of your submission for Practical 5.
VEGETATION AND PLANT SAMPLING
Objectives You will need Assessment After completing this practical you should be able to:
1. Describe some problems you may encounter in vegetation
sampling. 2. Demonstrate common techniques used for vegetation sampling
and the type of data generated by it. These notes.
2. A lawn area of 60m2 - 100m2 in which to work. A weedy lawn is
best! It's OK if shrubs or trees are planted in it. 3. A tape measure (at least 1m), 4 thin stakes (tomato stakes are
ideal) and record sheets (included with these notes). Submit a report of 1000 words describing your experiment as part of
your submission for Assignment III. OBIO103 Practical Manual Introduction 2 One of the aims of Environmental Biology is to introduce you to the
idea of sampling in biological systems. In science, sampling—what,
how much, where and how often to take samples is a vital part of
studying any organism or ecological system. The reliability of your data
is often more dependent on how you selected your samples than on how
you analysed them. No degree of accuracy in analysis can make up for
unrepresentative or inappropriate sampling.
In field biology we are often interested in quantifying the number or
amount of organisms that are present in any area. Animals and plants
involve different problems for sampling. In particular, animals may
be cryptic or elusive so it is difficult to count them. Plants on the
other hand at least stand still, but there are usually large numbers of
them so unless there are only a few specimens in any area in which
you are interested you must rely on an estimate.
Important government legislation restricts what field work we can ask
you to do, so the project is designed to be completed on a back lawn
or in a park. Your aim is to determine the optimum size of quadrat to
sample relative plant abundance and cover in your chosen
environment. Methods
1. Community
Species
Composition In studying the species composition of a community we must obtain an
adequate sample of the different species present in order to characterise
the community. The quadrat method is the most commonly used
method in plant ecology to sample the number of species (richness) in
any plant community. By collecting species records from a number of
quadrats which increase in size and plotting cumulative species against
quadrat size it is possible to determine the optimal area of a quadrat
needed to sample any community. Species Area Curve Cumulative
Number of
Species Area sampled (m2) The optimal area of the quadrat is where the curve flattens out and few
new species are recorded with increasing area sampled. OBIO103 Practical Manual 3 Problems may be encountered in the identification and measurement
of some plants. Arbitrary criteria may be needed for exclusion or
inclusion of plants on the boundaries of quadrats and for the
identification of individuals of some species.
Field Procedure
(in an area of lawn at
least 100m2) (i) (ii) Organise your sampling programme, data sheets and equipment
before going into the field. You will need :
• 1 tape measure, or measured pieces of rope or string marked
in metres up to 10 m. • 4 thin stakes to mark quadrat corners. • Record sheets (included at the end of this exercise). • 2 plastic bags. Choose a lawn area to begin marking out your quadrats. It will
help if it has not been mowed for at least a fortnight. A weedy
lawn is best! It's OK if shrubs are planted in the lawn. (iii) Measure out a 0.5m x 0.5m plot.
(iv) Record the number of species in this plot in the data table
provided at the end of this exercise. It is not actually necessary
to know all the different names of the species. It is really only
necessary to distinguish between the different plant species so
you know how many different types are present. You can call
them by your own names just as long as you remember what
each one is. It is important to examine the small plants very
carefully as they will only be distinguished from each other by
careful examination of leaf form, arrangement and the
possession of various features. Look carefully and do not rush
the exercise! Most lawns will contain a variety of weeds and
maybe some mosses, so try to find them all. Shrubs or
ornamental trees planted in the lawn should of course be counted
if the stem is within your plot. Also record the number of
individuals of each species if you can. The lawn itself is actually
a mat of many different small plants growing together and you
will not be able to tell how many plants are involved. OBIO103 Practical Manual Analysis of
Data (v) Take a pace to one side of the plot and measure out a new 0.5m
x 0.5m plot. Record all species in the second plot, making a
special note of any new species you did not see before. Also
note the number of individuals of each species. (vi) Assume a straight line runs through your two plots and take a
pace along that line away from the second plot and position a
third plot. Record all species in this third plot, making special
note of any new species you did not see before. Also note the
number of individuals of each species. (vii) Take a further pace along your imaginary line, position a fourth
plot and record the data. Repeat this procedure until you have
completed 20 plots. Should you come to the edge of the lawn,
take a pace at right angles to your last quadrat and position the
new sample there. Then move back the way you came with
successive plots, parallel to your original line. Field 1. 4 Plot the species-quadrat area curve for your quadrats and
determine at what quadrat area a representative sample of species
has been recorded (equivalence point), if you think this has been
reached. 2. Plot a bar graph of plant density (number/m2) on the y axis
against plant species name on the x axis for the summed data of
the 20 plots. 3. Plot a bar graph of the number of plots in which each species
occurred (i.e. number of plots/species) on the y axix against the
species name on the x axis. This is the frequency of occurrence
of the species. Report Submit a report of no more than 1000 words describing your work.
Note carefully the directions below and refer back to Notes for
Biological Sciences if necessary. Abstract You may find it easiest to write this section last. Remember to keep it
short! (50 words, 5 lines) Introduction
(150 words, 15 lines) Make sure you use the correct approach if you wish to cite your text or
other reference material. Remember that your main aim in this exercise
is the determination of the optimal number of quadrats to sample your
environment. OBIO103 Practical Manual Materials and methods
(200 words, 20 lines) Results 5 Think carefully about what you should say here so that someone else
can follow your work exactly. It's OK to refer back to the notes if they
say exactly what was done, rather than copying details. However, if you
do so, remember to reference the notes! (200 words,) Present here all the data requested. The raw data table from your notes
can be given as well as your graph. Discussion Make sure you answer these questions: (400 words, 40 lines) Acknowledgments 1. Do you think you have the full complement of species for the site?
Will the season have any influence on this? 2. How many quadrats do you think are adequate to sample this area
of lawn? Support your answer by reference to your species/area
graph. 3. Were all species evenly distributed across the quadrats? Were the
most abundant species also evenly distributed? If necessary. (20 words)
References You should include two references to journal articles in this report. To
find the articles, use the data base research skills you learned in the
library exercise. ‘Species area curves’ and ‘quadrat sampling’ are two
search terms you could try to locate a relevant article. If you do not have
access to the internet and hence cannot find any journal articles, please
advise your tutor when you submit the report. OBIO103 Practical Manual 6 Record sheet for Practical 5. The top table is an example of how to fill out the records and the bottom table is blank for your own records.
Plot
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20 Species found and numbers
A*
A
A B(2) C(1)
A
A C(1) D(1)
A B(1) D(1) E(1)
A E(1)
A B(1) F(3)
A B(1) G(1)
Bare ground
A
A
A
A D(1) E(2)
A G(5)
A B(1) D(1)
A C(1) G(2)
A B(1)
Bare ground
A Cumulative species richness
1
1
3
3
4
5
5
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7 *NB: A is the lawn and the number of plants cannot be counted.
Plot
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16 Species found and numbers Cumulative species richness OBIO103 Practical Manual 17
18
19
20 7 OBIO103 Practical Manual 8

 


Solution details:
STATUS
Answered
QUALITY
Approved
ANSWER RATING

This question was answered on: Sep 05, 2019

PRICE: $18

Solution~000200199040.zip (25.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $18

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free solution (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .
SiteLock

About this Question

STATUS

Answered

QUALITY

Approved

DATE ANSWERED

Sep 05, 2019

EXPERT

Tutor

ANSWER RATING

GET INSTANT HELP/h4>

We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.

You can also use these solutions:

  • As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
  • As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
  • For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student.

NEW ASSIGNMENT HELP?

Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround

Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.

WE GUARANTEE, THAT YOUR PAPER WILL BE WRITTEN FROM SCRATCH AND WITHIN YOUR SET DEADLINE.

Order Now