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(Solved) Challenge 2 Wildlife danger, sustainability and promotion: In Australia's Northern Territory tourist numbers have been declining. Crocodile tours on...

i need more references, at least 12

so change and edit (but keep the meaning) of some parts cited

and more pictures/diagrams for part 8 (remember to cite that part - figure 1, etc)

Challenge 2 Wildlife danger, sustainability and promotion:
In Australia’s Northern Territory tourist numbers have been declining. Crocodile tours on the Adelaide
and South Alligator River have however retained reasonably successful numbers of visitors. These tours
are now under threat from a number of directions. As the tour operators have developed their
operations, one of the tour highlights is the feeding of wild crocodiles which launch out of the water and
grab a fish bait from a suspended pole. This activity is appealing to visitors because of the spectacular
photographic shots they can take, including selfies, from the side of the cruise boats. However the
National Parks organization plus a number of concerned lobby groups including the local fishing lobby
and the even the animal rights organization suggest that the practice is causing a number of problems. It
is overfeeding the reptiles producing a large number of aggressive males. It is making crocodiles very
familiar with and attracted to boats and fearless around them. The boat operators argue that their
practice makes people aware of how dangerous and impressive the animals are, thus promoting caution
in places where crocodiles live. They also argue that they are not the only beneficiaries of the jumping
crocodiles with the hotels, restaurants and much of the Kakadu and Darwin tourist trade and associated
employment dependent on the 40,000 visitors a year who take crocodile tours. Using the ABCDEFG
OMO approach and building closely on the work in the subject provide two options which will
maximize the outcomes for the stakeholders. 1. Attitude: Provide a statement which supports a positive attitude towards solving this
problem, possibly noting those who are stakeholders who might think that a solution is
impossible (one paragraph-100words) The issue which is affecting the crocodile behaviors is emerging to be one of the most
complicated situations in the management. To develop the right solution, the focus will be
for all those who benefits from the crocodiles including the boat owners, hotel owners,
tourism, the conservationists and every other interested party (Orams, 2002). The
concerned stake holders, those who seek to conserve and save the wildlife and mankind
in general, they will achieve the desire by also providing an alternative for those who
gain from the activity. For Instance, employment. As for the guest houses providing
accommodation for the tourist, there will be still tourist inflow. 2. Beginning: identify the immediate or obvious core of the problem. This “challenge” might
be couched in terms of the management of sustainability - socio-cultural, environmental, or
economic terms or a combination of these issues and it may have a future focus (a prediction
that the problem is going to get worse) ( one page-300 words) The core sources are combination of different elements. The first major course is the
environmental aspects. In this case, the problems have that the crocodile is overfeeding.
As a result, they are becoming so fertile, and they are producing male crocodiles which
are very aggressive. It is an environmental imbalance. The second problem is that the
feeding pattern which is exhibited by the crocodile is working for the hotels near Kaunda
and those who owns boats around the area (Orams, 2002).
Many of the residents around this tourist attraction areas, are unemployed. They need to
form a way of getting some sort of income or at least to have something to put in their
mouths. The Climate not being so friendly to do farming, they have resulted to the tourist
attraction business. It is a quick way of earning since they do not require any form of
education all is need is skills. This has increased or contributed to the issue of crocodile’s
posing an immediate danger (Orams, 2002). 
The main benefits are that more customers are willing to visit this are with the idea of
getting the unique and peculiar phones as these crocodiles continue to feed on the fish
(O'Riordan, 2014). As a result, these hotels are taking advantage of the boom business
situation that has currently been seen in this area. It means increased revenues on their
part. In case this ordeal of crocodile jumping up and down is eliminated it means that
these businesses will be affected.
Another component that must be considered is the fact that if the population of these
aggressive males continues whether the argument is being made is that tourist will
understand who impressive these animals are and how to handle them. They will turn into
human hunters. No one will argue that these crocodiles have no benefit in economic
terms and adding the aesthetical value but the thinking must go beyond the standard
thinking that only their value should be realized. It is better to protect than to just wait for
situations to happen (Orams, 2002). 3. Consider again: Is there another way to look at the problem? (One to two paragraphs 200
words) The problem can be looked in another way by trying to argue on the animal’s behaviors
and the human interaction. In this case, when the crocodile is feeding excessively in most
case they end up producing the male crocodile (Orams, 2002). These crocodiles are very
aggressive. In most case, they will jump up and down in the water as they to try catch
fishing for consumption. Human beings tend to be overjoyed by the situation where they
can enjoy the specular views of the annuals as they continue with their daily activities
(O'Riordan, 2014). The interaction between these two is the one that is used in this case.
Adelaide and South Alligator River are offering the two elements which are needed in
this case. In case the investors such as the hotel must take this hence and establish
business somewhere, they can gain from. In this case, it offers something peculiar which
is not offered, and thus they must try to leverage from the development (O'Riordan,
2014). The act of feeding the crocodile has not yet brought any danger to the animals.
Instead has seen the country record high numbers of both local and foreign tourists. This
has created a name for the country and marketed itself thus increasing its revenue
collection. (Orams, 2002).
On the part of the fish lobby group and environments, they are arguing basing their
argument on what will be the after effects of the continued increase in the crocodile
population. One is arguing with short-term benefit will the other on long-term benefits
(Orams, 2002). 4. Definition of stakeholders: Define all the stakeholders-all the stakeholders and their
likely views (in some circumstances the “environment” may be seen as a stakeholder (Two
paragraphs 300 words) The National Parks organization and concerned lobby groups have been on the fighting
edge to put a stop to activity being carried out by the boat riders and the tourist. Their
main objective is to maintain the wildlife in its natural way and be on the check in the
population. The national Park Organization is arguing that the operation of the boat riders
and the tourists is affecting the way the crocodiles live in the natural way. They are
further touching on the issue of possible threats in the future posed by Crocodiles to
mankind (O'Riordan, 2014).
Tour operators are one of the most important stakeholders regarding environmental they
will explain that in case these crocodile movement is controlled it will affect their
business. They will represent the boat winners and other tour companies. In their
argument, they will reason that the current development will not have anything to do with
the human element and that nature can control itself. The second group of the
stakeholders is the hotel owner’s association (O'Riordan, 2014). In this thinking they will
argue that any move that will be made to control these crocodiles will not protect the
environment as what is currently happening is just a natural phenomenon that can control
itself. With this in mind, any move that will be used to monitor the movement of the
crocodiles will not be taken lightly by these group. They will feel that their investment is
being targeted in the name of environmental conservation.
The third group of the stakeholder is the environmental conservationist. The team is made
of the fish lobby group and national park organization. In this case, one of their main
issue in this argument is the fact that if the current situation continues the number of fish
in these two locations. The decrease in the number of fish will mean an environmental
calamity. Lack of the ecological balance will have a long-term effect on the increased
number of a crocodile will have to feed each and every day. The crocodile carrying
capacity will not be met which means future problems if the current move continues.
These crocodiles will target human beings in turn if the causing dangerous (O'Riordan,
The local community are the other group of stake holders. Their thinking will only
depend on what they get from the two location. In this case, if they get a fish increase in
the number of crocodiles will mean that both their life and the number of fish will decline
the boat riders, have seen this to be there only form of income. They are defending their
activities by ironing out how they have been on the frontline to understand and take
caution while in the waters (O'Riordan, 2014). They further mention out that with them
knowing the dangers of the crocodiles in water, they have been to understand how the
crocodiles live, feed, make their attacks and on how to defend when they attack or even
the mechanism of rescuing one who is being attacked by the crocodiles. They argue that
this would not have been possible if to begin with they had been denied the opportunity
of boat riding along the rivers. 5. Explore assumptions: Again what might have been assumed about the setting or any of
the stakeholders (one paragraph-150 words) The Park Organization has had its own believe about the boat riders’ activities of
encouraging the tourist to feed the crocodiles. Population increase of the crocodile is
purported to increase due to sufficient food while also lack of it will see a decline. But the
main assumption here is that only the feeding of fish by tourists and the boat riders has
led to the increased population. This is not entirely true, the amount being feed to the
crocodile cannot amount to a weeks feed of an adult crocodile which is roughly 1,9102,430 grams. This is to mean that the increased population growth is not from the fish
feeding but caused by other factors (O'Riordan, 2014).  6. Find information: Identify ideas from the subject (and any other highly related references
from journal articles and the academic literature) which can help the situation (two to three
pages-800 words):
Le Bon Theory The group-mind theory is the principle crowd behavior theory which was written
by Gustave Le Bon In his book about the crowd, he explored the most important synopsis
of “group-mind” which explains why a crowd behaves in a particular way (Laursen &
Møller 2016). That emotional tone is enhanced by the convergence of attention, the use
of oral and other notations, the excited postures of the crowd members, the suggestions of
leaders and other cases of the occasion in the crowd (Laursen & Møller 2016).
Therefore, group mind makes crowd members feel, think and act in practice
completely different from that in which each would feel, think and act when he/she is
alone. That is why individuals in crowds lose their sense of self and responsibly as
tourists are overfeeding the crocodiles while they are visiting the Adelaide or South
Alligator River. Tourists see everyone is feeding and taking pictures of the crocodiles;
they also do the same (Laursen & Møller 2016). They do not realize that their actions
have affected on the crocodiles’ behaviors which make them fearless surrounding, similar
with and attract to the boats. Individuals in crowds are subject to contagion, the rapid
spread of influences while everybody is taking photographic shots or feeding the
crocodiles (Laursen & Møller 2016).
Le Bon denoted that these prominent characteristics of crowds are the result of
three primary causes which are "the sentiment of invincible power," "Contagion," and
"suggestibility." He also predicated through their large numbers and group mentality
individuals increase a significant sense of power or the feeling of invincibility, and
explored that this sense of omnipotence coupled with the individual's sense of anonymity
in a crowd allow the individual "to yield to instincts which, had he been alone, he would
perforce have kept under restraint" (Laursen & Møller 2016). Le Bon also described
contagion as a type of collective hypnotic trance in emotions and actions, the collective
aspects of the emotions mostly motivate a crowd of people to change the prevailing
practices and have a new way of conducting things in the regard based on the behaviors.
Suggestibility, on the other hand, is the principle of the psychological force of which
contagion is the effect (Laursen & Møller 2016).
For Le Bon, the psychological phenomena of suggestibility and contagion
emerge as a result of the psychological transformation of the individual in which the
"conscious personality" disappears, more often the principle takes care of the crowd
minded psychological aspect that takes a different turn allowing for a type of
unconscious, unreflective, and hypnotic "fascination" to abound which on the context is
associated with the visitor behaviors that are said to cause the problems at hand (Laursen
& Møller 2016). Emergent norm theory
It is a theory that explains the cropping up of nontraditional behavior that is mainly
associated with a crowding effect of a group of people in an area van (Riper & Kyle
2014). The theory explains situations where by there is a way of doing things regarding a
matter however the effect of people in crowd minded mechanisms make the norm to
change, and the way of doing things takes a different direction with the matter at hand.
The principles of the theory are that the collective action of people s rational and the main
reasons for the coming up of the behaviors are mainly due to lack of prior coordination or
planning of the people in doing things (Riper & Kyle 2014). The theory tries to explain
that the crowds will mostly come together due to the occurrence of crisis that makes
people change the way they behave in different situations. It explains that when a certain
people take a change of doing things due to lack of regulations the other people will take
the same habit and continue to emulate the emergent behaviors that have occurred (Riper
& Kyle 2014).
In our context the behaviors of the crocodiles are not solely brought about by
internal factors, the habits have been created by the visitors who have been brought by
the tour operators. When the visitors come to experience the attractions, they are
encouraged by the environmental practices that dwell in the area. The behaviors are done
by the local people through the feeding of the crocodiles and the taking of photographs
(Riper & Kyle 2014). Through this, the visitors emulate the behaviors and make them
through a crowd related motivation factor indulge in the same activities. It makes the
crocodiles more aggressive and vicious to the general public. The habits are mostly done
when boat riding, which makes the crocodiles become attractive to the boats and hence
bring up problematic impacts (Riper & Kyle 2014).
The emergent norm theory, therefore, is essentially applicable when it suggests
that the behaviors that have been brought up by the general public in the areas have
become the most adapted way of doing things (Riper & Kyle 2014). The habits have
made the crocodiles feel superior and therefore make them develop the jumping up habits
and also encourage the breeding up of most male crocodiles in the area. The theory
suggests that when crowds come together, they develop new norms of which will always
depend on the composition of the crowd (Riper & Kyle 2014). 7. Get the responsibility right: Who should be involved in the possible solution bearing in
mind their capacity and resources? (Two paragraphs-300 words) There are a lot of different players in that particular environment. We have the
community, the authority the business agencies which include the tour operators and the
travel agencies together with the management stakeholders of the attractions. All the
players are supposed to engage together in the common goal of responsibility (Pinedo &
Bilbao 2014). However, the local people are mostly responsible together with the
management of the area. The management should ensure that they educate the local
people on the best practices that they should undertake in the site while also prohibit the
vital practices that bring harm to the ecosystem (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). The local
community due to their close availability to the area are the ones who interact mostly
with the crocodiles. When they change their behaviors and habits, therefore, they make
the crocodiles also emulate the changes by reducing the aggressiveness and viciousness
(Pinedo & Bilbao 2014).
The management that will integrate the local people and representatives should also
ensure that they regulate the activities of the tourists in the area. They should come up
with legal framework together with the help of the local government to bring up policies
that bring up fines which will discourage the tourists from feeding the crocodiles and
excessive taking of photographs which come up with negative impacts (Pinedo & Bilbao
2014). Tour operators are also responsible for bringing up strict rules that will only
ensure that the visitors who come to the crocodile visit are responsible and motivated by
the ecotourism principles which stipulates that the activities on the destination visited by
the tourists should have a very minimal impact on the environment. It will, therefore,
reduce the activities such as overfeeding of the crocodiles and bring a habit of responsible
interactions with the animals that will bring up the culture to be emulated by future
visitors on the destination (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). 8) Options: Create alternative ways (Options) using creativity tactics if necessary to view the problem and its future (STUDENTS MUST CREATE TWO OPTIONS-800 words) (400 words for each
option-students should use illustrations, photographs or diagram or figure to clarify their suggestions) Prohibiting notices on the destinations The management should come up with board notices that give written instructions to the
visitors visiting the attractions. The regulations should ensure that it does not compromise the
activities of the visitors and also does not disadvantage the crocodiles and the tourism business
that is undertaken in the area (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). For instance s the management should
come up with written posters at the entrance of the attraction sites that will ensure that the
visitors can see and read. The rules of the place should be written in different languages like
French, English and the local language of the destination. It will ensure that the visitors from
different countries can understand the languages and what the rules say. Rules can govern the
effects of the visitors on the destination (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). In addition to regulations in the
place. While booking for a visit by the tourists and other guests they are supposed to be sent an
email of terms and condition and the way they are supposed to carry out themselves, a list of
prohibited activities and items such as food on the site. It is important as it acts as a guide to
tourists on their conduct (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014).
Through the approach, the management can control the problem at hand and ensure that
the future conduct of other people visiting the same destinations is controlled. Prior regulations
sent to visitors encourage insinuates a lighter way of controlling the impacts of the tourists on the
areas. On it makes the tourists able to make decisions whether to visit the place or not do
(Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). The stipulated rules make the tourists also to rearrange their mind on
the planned activities that may be in one way or another break the regulations of the destination.
More importantly, the small billboards on the entrance and the walking paths of the destinations
are normally written in polite words which make tourists understand the importance of abiding
by the rules of the area to discourage them from impacting on the environment (Pinedo & Bilbao
2014). The polite notices might be for instance kindly do not feed any animals in the site or
rather kindly photography is prohibited beyond this place. The phrase as kind as they are they
have an adequate impact in the controlling of the behaviors of the tourists in the areas. It is
possible that the tourists will be able to abide by the notices that they are right before them
(Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). Water barriers. The management should ensure that they create water barriers that will enable boat riders not
to cross to the most infested areas with crocodiles (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). The barriers can also
be written information such as “no access beyond this point” they can limit the tourists to have
close interactions with the crocodiles. Therefore it enables the crocodiles to be viewed at a
distance and more importantly prevent the tourists from giving them food and taking close range
photos (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). A barrier is an established obstacle that discourages visitor
movement to the area. Barriers will also allow the visitor to visit areas that are allowed friendlier
to ensure their satisfaction. In the case at hard, barriers can be conducted some meters away from
where the crocodiles can reach (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). If necessary wire mesh can also be put
along the barriers to discourage the crocodiles from jumping out their territory. Barriers will be
able to limit the visitors who are careless about their impacts on the ecology (Pinedo & Bilbao
The building of the barriers will be able to ensure that the problems that have come up on
the destination are minimized. Barriers can keep of tourists from the crocodiles, therefore, the
crocodiles will not be possible to observe the boats and discourage the interaction (Pinedo &
Bilbao 2014). The crocodiles will therefore not become used to the boats and the activities that
are brought up by the boats. The distance from the barriers can discourage the tourists from
feeding the crocodiles in the water which also discourage the aspect which has increasingly
changed the habits of the male crocodiles.
Regarding future sustainability the barriers are in the destination as a permanent
structure, therefore it ensures that the interaction based on feeding, photographing are
discouraged for as long period as the structure will be (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). It, therefore,
ensures that the right responsible aspects of the tourists visiting the area are built up while the
habits of the crocodile are also built up to remain harmless and only have their pristine behaviors
on the ecology. Barriers discourage the closeness of visitors to the crocodiles which ensure that
the viciousness of the crocodile by the tourists are not easily seen and therefore encourage visitor
influx n the destination. Future visitors who visit the destination will be able to find the conduct
of people on the destination and therefore emulate them (Pinedo & Bilbao 2014). 9. Maximize Outcomes: The preferred option should be stated in terms of the benefits to
the most stakeholders (That is students state which option is best and why- one paragraph
-250 words) The best option that should be undertaken by the stakeholders in the addressing of
the problems that are affecting the destination would be the prohibiting notices. The
reasons are best oriented on the aspect that the option tries to tackle different areas that
ensure sustainable use of the destinations (Volgger & Pechlaner 2014). Prohibiting
notices give a kind burn of certain activities such as feeding of the crocodiles. Through
the placements of the notices on strategic positions in the destinations, the visitors can
control their behaviors based on the burn that they can be able to see. It brings the aspect
of self-responsibility that the tourists will ensure that they practice in the area (Volgger &
Pechlaner 2014).
Prohibiting notices do not need explanations and by the use of different languages
on the writings, visitors can see the importance of abiding by the rules of the destinations
and in most cases they will ensure that the activities that they conduct in the area will not
result in one way or another comprom...


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